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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tmod
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tropomodulin
Annotation Symbol
CG1539
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0082582
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
tropomodulin (tmod) encodes an actin/tropomyosin-associated protein involved in Notch signaling regulation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Also Known As

spdo, sanpodo, l(3)00848

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,532,607..30,578,905 [+]
Recombination map

3-100

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:30532607..30578905
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
18
Number of Unique Polypeptides
12

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\tmod or the JBrowse view of Dmel\tmod for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Multiphase exon postulated: exon reading frame differs in alternative transcripts.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 6.32

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085662
2537
367
FBtr0085663
2508
403
FBtr0085661
2716
409
FBtr0085659
2906
439
FBtr0085658
2685
439
FBtr0085660
2770
439
FBtr0113483
3192
526
FBtr0302110
2717
372
FBtr0302111
3000
439
FBtr0302112
2753
409
FBtr0302600
3232
424
FBtr0302601
2662
439
FBtr0306685
2299
449
FBtr0306686
2699
567
FBtr0306687
3484
424
FBtr0336446
4701
438
FBtr0336447
3182
454
FBtr0479778
2614
526
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7.9, 7.3, 5.8, 3.6, 3.1, 2.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085024
41.4
367
4.83
FBpp0085025
45.5
403
5.86
FBpp0085023
46.2
409
4.80
FBpp0085021
49.4
439
4.54
FBpp0085020
49.4
439
4.54
FBpp0085022
49.4
439
4.54
FBpp0112393
58.8
526
4.33
FBpp0291320
41.9
372
4.78
FBpp0291321
49.4
439
4.54
FBpp0291322
46.2
409
4.80
FBpp0291756
48.2
424
4.86
FBpp0291757
49.4
439
4.54
FBpp0297624
50.5
449
4.54
FBpp0297625
63.4
567
4.52
FBpp0297626
48.2
424
4.86
FBpp0307552
49.1
438
4.43
FBpp0307553
51.3
454
4.58
FBpp0428111
58.3
526
4.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

439 aa isoforms: tmod-PD, tmod-PE, tmod-PF, tmod-PI, tmod-PL
409 aa isoforms: tmod-PC, tmod-PJ
424 aa isoforms: tmod-PK, tmod-PO
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

367, 45 (aa); 403, 43 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tmod using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (8 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000096563
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000096563
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000096564
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004934, InterPro:IPR030137
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000096563
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000096564
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

head mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states expression starts at 9-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Both tmod and α-Spec immunoreactivity associate with the fusome, but not in the exact same pattern as the germline cyst ages.

in the germarium, tmod is enriched in spectrosomes and fusomes from the germline stem cell to the fusome remnants in budding egg chambers. It is also found in fusomes throughout male cyst development.

The small spdo isoform was detected at all developmental stages tested. In adults, it was enriched in the head and abdomen. The 43kD isoform is the only form detected in myofibrils in pupae, where it is associated with the pointed ends of thin filaments. It is still detected in day 1 adults.

The 45kD spdo isoform is detected in adult flies, where it is enriched in thoraces and dissected IFM. The 45kD spdo isoform is not detected until 8-12hr after eclosion but is the major form in 2 day adults. It is associated with the thin filament pointed ends.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tmod in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 28 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tmod
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tmod
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
 
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
 
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Hsap\LOC112268148
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (9)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091907DZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506EZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07CG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X093U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0E9A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map

3-100

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,532,607..30,578,905 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
99F7-99F8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
99F10-99F11
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
99F6-99F9
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (19)
Genomic Clones (39)
cDNA Clones (89)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: tmod CG1539

Source for database merge of
Additional comments

The "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the CG31020 annotation and not to "tmod" as previously reported in FBrf0102830; molecular lesions in the CG31020 annotation have been identified in 12 spdo alleles, RNAi against CG31020 results in a central nervous system (CNS) phenotype essentially identical to that of spdo mutants and expression of CG31020 throughout the CNS of spdo mutant embryos results in complete to near-complete rescue of the spdo CNS phenotype.

Annotations CG1539, CG15540, CG11493 merged as CG1539 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

FlyBase curator comment: FBrf0102830 states that the "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the "tmod, tropomodulin" gene. However, FBrf0162056 shows that this was an error and the spdo complementation group actually corresponds to the CG31020 annotation.

The "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the CG31020 annotation and not to the CG1539 annotation. It was reported in FBrf0102830 that "spdo" corresponds to the "tmod, tropomodulin" gene (the CG1539 annotation). However, this was subsequently shown to be an error. FBrf0162056 shows that the "spdo" complementation group corresponds instead to the CG31020 annotation.

Other Comments

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 112 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0011716
  • FBgn0010731
  • FBgn0039785
  • FBgn0039786
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (104)