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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sif
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
still life
Annotation Symbol
CG34418
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0085447
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
still life (sif) encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases. It is specifically localized to presynaptic terminals in both the central nervous system and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), and regulates synaptic growth at NMJs. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

Dm_3L:26493 , lincRNA.447

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:5,657,913..5,749,599 [+]
Recombination map

3-15

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:5657913..5749599
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:103306
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:LIMK1; FB:FBgn0283712
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:103306
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000219
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002916489
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RHO GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS -
RhoGEFs are Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They include Dbl-homology domain-containing proteins (the largest family of RhoGEFs) and CZH2 domain/Dock family GEFs. (Adapted from FBrf0190957).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Regulates synaptic differentiation through the organization of actin cytoskeleton possibly by activating Rho-like GTPases. Is likely a factor in the cascade of Rac1 or Cdc42 in the neurons (PubMed:8999801). May play a role in maintaining proper septate junction functions. Required for eye development and most likely affects corneal lens-formation (PubMed:30290152).
(UniProt, P91621P91620)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
13
Number of Unique Polypeptides
12

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sif for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.10

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

gene_with_dicistronic_mRNA ; SO:0000722

Gene model reviewed during 6.13

A non-AUG start codon may be used for translation of one or more transcripts of this gene; based on the presence of conserved protein signatures within the 5' UTR without an in-frame AUG (FBrf0243886).

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Stop-codon suppression (UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0112709
10831
2052
FBtr0112708
9601
2072
FBtr0112710
10858
2061
FBtr0112712
13652
2657
FBtr0330122
10046
2072
FBtr0330123
13709
2734
FBtr0330126
13919
2646
FBtr0330124
7525
1270
FBtr0330125
10648
2091
FBtr0340654
10278
2081
FBtr0340655
10594
2088
FBtr0340656
14691
2476
FBtr0346962
13664
2676
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

9.233, 7.854 (compiled cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0111621
229.0
2052
8.99
FBpp0111620
231.1
2072
8.07
FBpp0111622
229.9
2061
8.99
FBpp0111624
295.3
2657
7.86
FBpp0303155
231.1
2072
8.07
FBpp0303156
303.7
2734
7.98
FBpp0303159
294.1
2646
8.65
FBpp0303157
142.8
1270
8.01
FBpp0303158
233.3
2091
8.02
FBpp0309505
232.1
2081
8.10
FBpp0309506
232.9
2088
8.02
FBpp0309507
274.8
2476
7.56
FBpp0312426
297.5
2676
7.89
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2072 aa isoforms: sif-PB, sif-PI
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

2064, 2044 (aa)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sif using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Expression in stage P3 pupal leg discs is ubiquitous.

In stage 14 embryos, sif transcripts are expressed in several cells per segment in the CNS. At stage 17, expression is observed exclusively in the brain and ventral nerve cord.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sif protein is located in neuropil of the ventral nerve cord in stage 17 embryos. In third instar larvae, it is detected in body wall muscle in the boutons of neuromuscular junctions. sif protein is also found in neuropil in the adult brain. Thus, it is exclusively localized to synaptic regions primarily after the synapses have undergone maturation.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sif in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sif
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sif
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (32)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (29)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (26)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (21)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (37)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (4)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919005R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500IC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00G9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00F5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03EU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map

3-15

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:5,657,913..5,749,599 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
64E5-64E5
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sinu06524 and P{PZ}Bre101640
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
64E-64E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (21)
Genomic Clones (64)
cDNA Clones (51)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

polyclonal

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: sif CG5256

Source for identity of: sif CG5406

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: sif CG5256 CG5406

Source for merge of: sif CG32414

Additional comments

One or more of the processed transcripts for these genes contain several non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The non-overlapping ORFs are represented by CG46320 (FBgn0284236) and CG34418 (FBgn0085447).

Annotations CG5406 and CG32414 merged as CG34418 in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.

Other Comments

New annotation (CG32414) in release 3 of the genome annotation.

Expression of a truncated sif protein results in defects in neuronal morphology and induces membrane ruffling with altered actin localisation in human KB cells.

sif may regulate the change of axon terminal morphology with differentiation into mature synapses.

The sif gene product may regulate synaptic differentiation through the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by activating Rho-like GTPases.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 104 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBan0032414
  • FBgn0035629
  • FBgn0035628
  • FBgn0019656
  • FBgn0052414
  • FBgn0019652
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (113)