General Information
Symbol
Dmel\se
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sepia
Annotation Symbol
CG6781
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086348
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Pyrimidodiazepine synthase (1.5.4.1)
Glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate) (1.8.5.1)
Glutathione transferase (2.5.1.18)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
GSTO4
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:8,520,552..8,521,489 [+]
Recombination map
3-26
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the GST superfamily. Omega family. (Q9VSL3)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
2-amino-6-acetyl-3,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrimido(4,5-b)[1,4]diazepin-4-one + glutathione disulfide + H(2)O = 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin + 2 glutathione (1.5.4.1)
2 glutathione + dehydroascorbate = glutathione disulfide + ascorbate (1.8.5.1)
RX + glutathione = HX + R-S-glutathione (2.5.1.18)
Predictions / Assertions
2 glutathione + dehydroascorbate = glutathione disulfide + ascorbate (1.8.5.1)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
CYTOPLASMIC S-GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASES -
Glutathione transferases (glutathione S-transferases, GST) catalyze nucleophilic attack by reduced glutathione on nonpolar compounds that contain an electrophilic carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur atom. At least 14 classes of cytosolic GSTs have been identified in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Theta, Omega, Sigma and Zeta exist in all eukaryotes. D. melanogaster has two additional classes, Delta and Epsilon. In D. mel, the class is indicated by the letter after the Gst prefix. (Adapted from FBrf0217315 and PMID:15822171).
DISULFIDE OXIDOREDUCTASES -
Disulfide oxidoreductases include dehydrogenases that catalyze the oxidation of substrate with reduced sulfide groups into substrate with oxidized disulfide bonds.
OTHER CH-NH OXIDOREDUCTASES -
The Other CH-NH oxidoreductases, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases acting on the CH-NH group of donors.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Mediates the conversion of 2-amino-4-oxo-6-pyruvoyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine (6-PTP; also named 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin) to 2-amino-6-acetyl-3,7,8,9-tetrahydro-3H-pyrimido(4,5-b)[1, 4]diazepin-4-one (pyrimidodiazepine or PDA), a key intermediate in red eye pigment drosopterin biosynthesis.
(UniProt, Q9VSL3)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
se: sepia
Eye color brown at eclosion, darkening to sepia, and becoming black with age. Thought to be the structural gene for the enzyme PDA synthetase which catalyzes the conversion of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin to 2-amino-4-oxo-6-acetyl-7,8-dihydro-3H,9H-pyrimido [4, 5, 6]-[1, 4] diazepine (=PDA), which is a precursor of the red drosopterin pigments. The enzyme has been partially purified and has a molecular weight of 48,000 daltons (Wiederrecht and Brown, 1984, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14121-27). Pigment of ocelli normal. Chromatographically, se eyes characterized by having no red pigment [e.g. drosopterin and isodrosopterin (McKay, 1972, DIS 48: 62)] and an accumulation of yellow pigment (Hadorn and Mitchell, 1951, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 37: 650-65; Ziegler-Gunder and Hadorn, 1958, Z. Vererbungsl. 89: 235-45). Three yellow pigments identified are 6- derivatives of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridine; the most abundant is sepiapterin, the 6-lactyl derivative; minor species are isosepiapterin (Viscontini and Mohlmann, 1959, Helv. Chim. Acta 42: 836-41; Forrest, VanBaalen, and Myers, 1959, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 83: 508-20) and neosepiapterin (Takikawa, 1973, DIS 50: 158; Sugiura, Takikawa, Tsusue, and Goto, 1973, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 46: 3312-13), which are the 6-proprionyl and 6-acetyl derivatives respectively; the latter compound shown to be D-erythro-neopterin by Katoh and Arai (1974, DIS 51: 70). Other pteridines present in greater-than-normal amounts [e.g. isoxanthopterin II, xanthopterin I, and biopterin (McKay)]. Eye color autonomous in se eye disks transplanted into wildtype hosts (Beadle and Ephrussi, 1936, Genetics 21: 230). pn se flies have 10% amount of sepiapterin of se alone (Lifschytz and Falk, 1969, Genet. Res. 14: 53-61); dor se displays reduced viability (Lucchesi, 1968, Genetics 59: 37-44). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\se or the JBrowse view of Dmel\se for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076623
825
243
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076349
28.4
243
5.47
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, Q9VSL3)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\se using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (10 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000883725
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000883725
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with RGD:70952
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\se in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 22 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of se
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of se
Allele of se
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of se
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
No
13 of 15
No
No
10 of 15
No
No
9 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (34)
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190ED3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915094O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CH2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0CF0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0IEA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer.
    (UniProt, Q9VSL3 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-26
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:8,520,552..8,521,489 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    66D5-66D5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}Gug03928&P{EP}CG6745EP595b and P{lacW}foij8E8
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (33)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (16)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: se CG6781
      Additional comments
      FlyBase Curator comment: Note that (at least) three genes have been referred to as 'GstO1' (or a slight variant thereof) in the literature: CG6662 (in FBrf0217315), CG6673 (in FBrf0217543) and CG6781/se (in FBrf0191145). FlyBase has used 'GstO1' as the official symbol for CG6662 based on FBrf0217315 as this was the first peer-reviewed research paper to name the gene, and it presents a unified and systematic nomenclature for all Gst genes.
      Other Comments
      Analysis of variance of developmental time and viability of pteridine pathway mutants in sf, se, Hn, dke and bw, indicated that viability of induced and natural population alleles is the same whereas developmental time tends to be longer for induced mutations as compared to natural population alleles.
      se mutants are deficient in levels of 'quench spot' and drosopterins. 'Quench spot' is proposed to be a precursor of drosopterins and is formed from the sepiapterin synthase intermediate.
      Thought to be the structural gene for the enzyme PDA synthetase which catalyzes the conversion of 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin to 2-amino-4-oxo-6-acetyl-7,8-dihydro-3H,9H-pyrimido4,5,6-1,4 diazepine (=PDA), which is a precursor of the red drosopterin pigments. The enzyme has been partially purified and has a molecular weight of 48,000 daltons (Wiederrecht and Brown, 1984). Pigment of ocelli normal. Chromatographically, se eyes characterized by having no red pigment <up>e.g. drosopterin and isodrosopterin (McKay, 1972)</up> and an accumulation of yellow pigment (Hadorn and Mitchell, 1951; Ziegler-Gunder and Hadorn, 1958). Three yellow pigments identified are 6- derivatives of 2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridine; the most abundant is sepiapterin, the 6-lactyl derivative; minor species are isosepiapterin (Viscontini and Mohlmann, 1959; Forrest, VanBaalen, and Myers, 1959) and neosepiapterin (Takikawa, 1973; Sugiura, Takikawa, Tsusue and Goto, 1973), which are the 6-proprionyl and 6-acetyl derivatives respectively; the latter compound shown to be D-erythro-neopterin by Katoh and Arai (1974). Other pteridines present in greater-than-normal amounts <up>e.g. isoxanthopterin II, xanthopterin I and biopterin (McKay)</up>. Eye color autonomous in se eye discs transplanted into wild-type hosts (Beadle and Ephrussi, 1936). pn se flies have 10% amount of sepiapterin of se alone (Lifschytz and Falk, 1969); dor se displays reduced viability (Lucchesi, 1968).
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (98)