General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Tpi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Triose phosphate isomerase
Annotation Symbol
CG2171
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086355
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Triose-phosphate isomerase (5.3.1.1)
Gene Snapshot
Triose phosphate isomerase is a soluble metabolic protein dimer that functions in glycolysis catalyzing the isomerization between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which is essential for efficient ATP production. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
wstd, ND14
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,132,981..30,134,599 [-]
Recombination map
3-100
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the triosephosphate isomerase family. (P29613)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = glycerone phosphate (5.3.1.1)
Predictions / Assertions
D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = glycerone phosphate (5.3.1.1)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
INTRAMOLECULAR OXIDOREDUCTASES INTERCONVERTING ALDOSES AND KETOSES -
Intramolecular oxidoreductases interconverting aldoses and ketoses catalyze the oxidation of one part of an aldose or ketose molecule and the concurrent reduction of another part of the same molecule. (Adapted from FBrf0238665.)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Tpi: Triosephosphate isomerase
Structural gene for the glycolytic enzyme triosphosphate isomerase [TPI (EC5.3.1.1)] found in muscle. Heterozygote contains the parental isozymes plus a hybrid isozyme.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Tpi or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Tpi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085582
1374
348
FBtr0085583
1112
247
FBtr0085584
1268
247
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
1.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084948
37.9
348
7.73
FBpp0084949
26.6
247
5.80
FBpp0084950
26.6
247
5.80
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

247 aa isoforms: Tpi-PB, Tpi-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P29613)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Tpi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P17751
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P17751
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000474559
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Tpi transcripts are detected throughout development on northern blots. They are very abundant in very early embryos and then decline. Levels then rise to a peak in third instar larvae followed by a decline and a subsequent rise near the time of eclosion. This is a pattern characteristic of enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Glycolytic enzymes, including Tpi protein are localized to M bands and Z discs, as visualized in the isolated myofibrils of flight muscles, where immunoreactivity appears as alternating bright and less-intense bands.
Tpi protein was identified in wing discs.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Tpi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 33 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Tpi
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 26 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190ABM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915099U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0C2X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0BSC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LEZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
Download
Models ( 14 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
in combination with TpiK11M
in combination with TpiT73R-CFP
inferred from mutant phenotype
in combination with TpiK11M
in combination with TpiG74E-CFP
inferred from mutant phenotype
in combination with TpiK11M
Interactions ( 3 )
Comments ( 1 )
 
The neurological phenotypes of the Tpisgk-1 allele (which can be used to model triosephosphate isomerase deficiency) are genetically complemented by an allele (TpiK11M) which encodes a catalytically inactive enzyme. This suggests a non-metabolic function for Tpi in D.melanogaster, the loss of which contributes significantly to the neurological defects in the Tpisgk-1 animal model.
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Homodimer.
(UniProt, P29613 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-100
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:30,132,981..30,134,599 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
99D8-99D8
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
99E-99E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
3-101.3
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (13)
Genomic Clones (14)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (130)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: Tpi CG2171
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: Tpi ND14
Additional comments
Other Comments
Mutants have reduced longevity, progressive locomotor deficiency and neural degeneration.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
Identified in 2D gels of CMW W2 wing imaginal disc cell proteins.
Isolated using a fragment of the chicken Tpi gene as a probe.
Tpi has been cloned and sequenced, and its developmental expression pattern analysed.
Structural gene for the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) found in muscle. Heterozygote contains the parental isozymes plus a hybrid isozyme.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
The gene has been named "sugarkill", due to the well characterised function of the Tpi protein in carbohydrate metabolism and the reduced longevity defect of Tpi mutants.
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 107 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0003738
  • FBgn0063906
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (115)