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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tw
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
twisted
Annotation Symbol
CG12311
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086368
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
twisted (tw) encodes a protein that transfers a mannose to the Ser/Thr residues of dystroglycan, via forming an heterodimer with the product of rt. Its roles include myogenesis, muscle architecture and cell adhesion. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

POMT2, dPOMT2, EG:34F3.7 , Protein O-mannosyltransferase 2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:784746..788215
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (9 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in muscle attachment
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Dg; FB:FBgn0034072
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Dg; FB:FBgn0034072
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004122025
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295889
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 39 family. (Q9W5D4)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
twisted (tw) encodes a protein that transfers a mannose to the Ser/Thr residues of dystroglycan, via forming an heterodimer with the product of rt. Its roles include myogenesis, muscle architecture and cell adhesion. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PROTEIN O-MANNOSYLTRANSFERASES -
Protein O-mannosyltransferases transfer a mannose residue from dolichyl phosphate D-mannose to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group of selected serine/threonine residues. In contrast to yeast, O-Man glycosylation in metazoans is found only on select proteins. The evolutionary conserved POMT1/POMT2 enzymes target the dystroglycan protein, while the TMTC proteins selectively serve cadherins and protocadherins. (Adapted from PMID:28973932 and FBrf0244700.) These enzymes are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum.
POMT1-POMT2 COMPLEX -
The POMT1-POMT2 complex is a heterodimeric mannosyltransferase complex that transfers a mannose residue from dolichyl phosphate D-mannose to the oxygen atom of the hydroxyl group of selected serine/threonine residues of the dystroglycan protein. (Adapted from PMID:31285605 and FBrf0244700).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Rt/POMT1 and tw/POMT2 function as a protein O-mannosyltransferase in association with each other to generate and maintain normal muscle development.
(UniProt, Q9W5D4)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tw: twisted
Abdomens of males and females twisted about 30 clockwise, as viewed from the posterior. Body tends to be dwarfed. Viability reduced; hatching delayed. Males usually fertile. 1% nondisjunction for homologs in males (Davis, 1975, 1980).
tw2
Abdomens of males and females twisted 30-60 clockwise, as viewed from the posterior; more extreme than tw. Male genitalia often twisted counter-clockwise. Viability reduced. Males usually fertile. tw2/tw flies resemble tw2/tw2.
tw3
Abdomens of males and females twisted up to 90, as viewed from the posterior. Male genitalia and anal plate often twisted clockwise or counter-clockwise (misalignment up to 180). Males and females often sterile, although male genitalia appear normal and sperm are motile. 1% nondisjunction for homologues in males (Davis, 1975, 1980).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\tw for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q9W5D4)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070139
2671
765
FBtr0335403
2840
765
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070134
86.2
765
9.50
FBpp0307386
86.2
765
9.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

765 aa isoforms: tw-PA, tw-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with Rt/POMT1.

(UniProt, Q9W5D4)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tw using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

tw expression is first observed at embryonic stage 14, where it is observed in developing epidermal cells as well as in hindgut and foregut. It is also present in developing trachea.

At embryonic stage 10, intense expression of tw is observed in the germ band and in the invaginating gut. Faint but steady expression is observed in all cells of the stage 10 embryo.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tw in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tw
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tw
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 107 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 107 )
Gene not disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
3 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
5 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 4 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Interactions Browser
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Rt/POMT1.
(UniProt, Q9W5D4 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-0
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
1C3-1D4
Left limit from complementation mapping against T(1;2)Bld (citation unavailable) Right limit from inclusion within Df(1)su(s)83 (FBrf0049919)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

Mapping based on tw1; 1-0.1 based on tw3.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (7)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (21)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: Pomt2 CG12311

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: tw Pomt2

Additional comments
Other Comments

Shows particularly robust cycling of transcription in adult heads, as assessed by expression analysis using high density oligonucleotide arrays with probe generated during three 12-point time course experiments over the course of 6 days.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
Datasets (6)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
Study result (6)
Result
Result Type
Title
Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
References (69)