General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spin
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spinster
Annotation Symbol
CG8428
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086676
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Spinster is a conserved transmembrane protein and a putative late-endosomal/lysosomal efflux permease. It is essential for mTOR reactivation and lysosome reformation following prolonged starvation and for regulation of TGF-β/BMP pathways in motoneuron and eye development. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-16]
Also Known As
l(2)10403, l(2)k09905, bnch
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:16,124,981..16,138,238 [+]
Recombination map
2-77
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Spinster (TC 2.A.1.49) family. (Q9GQQ0)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Probable sphingolipid transporter that plays a central role in endosomes and/or lysosomes storage. Involved in TGF-beta-mediated synaptic growth regulation both pre- and postsynaptically via its function in endosomal storage regulation. Also required during oogenesis by regulating yolk spheres storage.
(UniProt, Q9GQQ0)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\spin or the JBrowse view of Dmel\spin for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Variable use of small exon; supported combination results in frameshift and premature stop in downstream exon.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089593
3007
605
FBtr0089592
3394
630
FBtr0089591
3198
605
FBtr0089590
3394
630
FBtr0089589
3132
402
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088552
65.8
605
6.69
FBpp0088551
68.6
630
6.60
FBpp0088550
66.1
605
6.69
FBpp0088549
68.3
630
6.60
FBpp0088548
44.5
402
8.16
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spin using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (23 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (17 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dpp; FB:FBgn0000490
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sax; FB:FBgn0003317
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:tkv; FB:FBgn0003716
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Mad; FB:FBgn0011648
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011701
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011701
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
spin protein is detected ubiquitously in the larval eye disc, in vesicles within neurons and glial cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\spin in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 55 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of spin
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
miscellaneous insertions
Name
Expression Data
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spin
Allele of spin
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spin
characterization construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult central nervous system & abdominal segment, with Scer\GAL4- :
eye photoreceptor cell & late endosome | supernumerary | somatic clone
eye photoreceptor cell & secondary lysosome | supernumerary | somatic clone
lamina receptor cell & secondary lysosome | supernumerary | somatic clone
larval neuromuscular junction & synaptic vesicle (with spin11F5)
larval neuromuscular junction & synaptic vesicle (with spinE14.1)
larval neuromuscular junction & synaptic vesicle (with spinΔ2b)
monopolar laminar cell & secondary lysosome | supernumerary | somatic clone
nurse cell & nucleus
nurse cell & nucleus, with Scer\GAL4- :
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (8)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (4)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909QJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506NW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03K0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03GS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G082Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
Download
Models ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Interactions ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments ( 0 )
 
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
protein-protein
Interacting group
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-77
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:16,124,981..16,138,238 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
52F5-52E
Left limit from inclusion within Df(2R)Jp8 (FBrf0111416) Right limit from inclusion within Df(2R)Jp8 (FBrf0111416); Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0078755) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0078755)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
52E5-52E6
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 52E5--8 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
52E-52E
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
52E1-52E2
52E5--6 52E7--8
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (28)
Genomic Clones (15)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (51)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: spin diphthong
Source for merge of: spin l(2)10403 l(2)k09905
Source for merge of: spin bnch l(2)W5
Source for merge of: spin CG8428
Additional comments
Source for merge of spin CG8428 was sequence comparison ( date:010104 ).
Other Comments
spin is required both pre- and post-synaptically for normal synaptic growth at the neuromuscular junction.
Mutant females show strong rejection behaviour in response to male courtship. Mutants of both sexes show a decrease in viability and adult lifespan. Loss of spin gene function interferes with programmed cell death of neurons and nurse cells.
Identification: In a genetic screen for components of the muscle to nerve trans-synaptic signaling system.
spin may be a negative regulator of synaptic growth.
Loss-of-function mutations lead to an overgrowth of the neuromuscular synapse (50-150% increase in bouton number). Synaptic function is normal despite the large increase in synapse size.
Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
Identification: Enhancer trap screen designed to discover genes involved in the cellular aspects of defense mechanisms, as well as in melanotic tumor formation processes linked to blood cell disregulation.
Mating behaviour of spin mutant females is studied.
bnch is an essential locus involved in PNS development.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
The name 'benchwarmer' refers to the overall lower level of locomotor activity displayed by mutant adult escapers and honors athletes who play rarely and therefore sit on the bench.
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Linkouts
ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
Reported As
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0004571
  • FBgn0014134
  • FBgn0028602
  • FBgn0010657
  • FBgn0015991
  • FBgn0021981
  • FBgn0034078
  • FBgn0061174
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (141)