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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\vvl
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ventral veins lacking
Annotation Symbol
CG10037
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086680
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
ventral veins lacking (vvl) encodes a transcription factor that acts together with other transcription factors in a context-dependent manner. Roles for this transcription factor include specification of cell fates, patterning and immune defense. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

drifter, dfr, Cf1a, ventral veinless, Drf

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:6,790,158..6,794,941 [+]
Recombination map

3-17

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:6790158..6794941
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the POU transcription factor family. Class-3 subfamily. (P16241)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
POU HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
POU homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a POU-specific domain N-terminal to a homeodomain. POU proteins can bind as homodimers or heterodimers to DNA. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:18797923).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Binds to a DNA sequence element required for the expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) in specific dopaminergic neurons. Could also play an early role in specific ectodermal cells, and a subsequent role in the embryonic nervous system.
(UniProt, P16241)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sep: separated
Most of posterior crossvein absent, one-third usually remaining attached to vein L5. RK2A.
vvl: ventral veins lacking
Prevents differentiation of longitudinal veins 2 and 4 which form on the ventral surface of the wing; in Hw; vvl flies, extra sensillae form in the ventral surface where veins would ordinarily form.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - homeodomain - pou domain - mutants display severe tracheal defects and defects in ventral midline glia migration - identities of medulla neurons are pre-determined in the larval medulla primordium, which is subdivided into concentric zones characterized by the expression of four transcription factors: Drifter, Runt, Homothorax and Brain-specific homeobox

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\vvl or the JBrowse view of Dmel\vvl for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Triple stop-codon suppression (UAG, UAG, UAG) postulated; FBrf0216884.

gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0076944
4380
427
FBtr0330059
4380
713
FBtr0345911
4784
427
FBtr0346998
4380
726
FBtr0346999
4380
742
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

3.5, 3.4 (northern blot)

4.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076653
45.9
427
8.31
FBpp0303092
76.8
713
7.92
FBpp0311831
45.9
427
8.31
FBpp0312430
78.1
726
7.81
FBpp0312431
79.9
742
7.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

427 aa isoforms: vvl-PA, vvl-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

427 (aa); 46 (kD observed); 46 (kD predicted)

549 (aa); 60 (kD)

Comments

vvl protein is a positive regulator of Ddc gene transcription. Immunoprecipitation and crosslinking studies show that vvl protein associates with acj6 protein in vivo. When bound by acj6 protein as a heterodimer, vvl protein no longer binds DNA. Transfection experiments in CV-1 cells demonstrate that vvl protein activates transcription of a reporter gene driven by the Ddc promoter or a heterologous promoter preceded by the vvl element. This activation does not occur in the presence of acj6 protein. The vvl DNA sequence and predicted amino acid sequence is significantly different than that presented in FBrf 54626.

vvl protein encodes a sequence specific DNA-binding protein. The vvl gene product binds to a DNA region required for the expression of Ddc. A high degree of similarity was noted between the vvl protein and Human Brn-1 and Brn-2 POU-domain sequences which extends to the 17aa linker between the homeodomain and the POU domain.

External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\vvl using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (13 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180816
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180816
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180816
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180816
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

head mesoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states transcript expressed up to 8-12 hr AEL

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

vvl trasnscript is expressed at early stage 10 in the tracheal placodes, and in homologous cells in segments that will not form trachea. At stage 11, vvl is also expressed in 10 dorsal epithelial patches in each trunk segment, which are displaced with respect to the tracheal primoridia. By stage 15, vvl transcript is expressed in most of the embryonic trunk epithelium

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

vvl is expressed in the ectoderm of the anterior hindgut at embryonic stage 14.

vvl transcripts first appear at 5-6hr of development, show a peak of expression between 10hr and 13hr and decline substantially by the end of embryogenesis.

vvl transcripts are first detected in 3-6 hr embryos, are at a maximum level in 6-12 hr embryos and persist throughout development. They are first detected in the tracheal placodes of germ band extended embryos. They are later observed in cells surrounding the tracheal pits that may be chordotonal organs and in a group of cells on the roof of the stomodeal invagination. A complex pattern of expression is observed in the PNS and CNS.

vvl transcripts are initially detected in 3-6 hr embryos, progressively increase to maximum levels in late embryos, and decline thereafter. Transcripts are initially detected in the ectoderm of stage 10 embyros at regular, repeating intervals. This correlates with sites of the invaginations that are the origins of the tracheal placodes. Transcripts are also found along the midline of the CNS. vvl transcripts are found in a subset of neurons in the CNS that substantially overlap those that express acj6 transcripts.

vvl transcript is detected in oocytes and early embryos.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
dissected tissue
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
neuron | subset of medulla

Comment: expression at 24h APF

Additional Descriptive Data

Expression of vvl protein is observed in a subset of ventral motor neurons which exit the ventral nerve cord via the ISNb nerve branch. There is co-expression with Oli protein.

vvl protein is expressed in the differentiated neurons of the the outermost domain of the medulla anlage from third instar larvae and in pupa until 12h APF, distal to the domain of run. Thereafter and in adults, vvl protein is found in layers 8 to 10 of the medulla. It is also observed in the adult neurons of the lobula and lobula plate and in non-neuronal cells of the lamina.

vvl is expressed in many tissues in larvae and adults including fat body, oenocytes, epidermis, tracha, proventriculus, midgut, hindgut, salivary gland, and Malpighian tubule as well as in the larval brain, some imaginal discs, gastric caecum, ring gland, and ejaculatory duct. It was not detected in the lymph gland or hemocytes, in the accessory glands, seminal vesicle, or testis, or in any part of the female reproductive tract.

vvl is first detected in a few neuroblasts of the eveloping brain anlage at embryonic stage 11. By stage 13, it is abundant in neuroblasts and their progeny in each brain neuromere. By stage 15, vvl is observed in specific clusters within all brain neuromeres. A prominent expression domain is observed in the developing tritocerebrum. The majority of cells expressing vvl in the tritocerebrum overlap the lab expression domain.

vvl protein expression is first apparent in early stage 10 in two rows of 10-cell patches corresponding to the developing tracheal placodes. vvl expression serves as a marker for the tracheal pits as they undergo extensive morphogenetic movements in stages 10-13. Epidermal vvl expression becomes prominant from stages 13-16/17 and masks the tracheal expression at these stages. During this period, strong staining is seen in the seven laterally symmetrical oenocyte clusters in segments A1-A7. vvl is also expressed in the hindgut in stages 13-15. vvl expression is observed in the developing head region in stage 10/11 embryos in tissues of the procephalon, clypeolabrum, and labium. The most prominant labeling is seen in laterally symmetrical placodes of cells located on both the dorsal and ventral sides of the stomodeal opening. This corresponds to regions containing sensory progenitor cells derived from the clypeolabrum and labrum. Expression is seen in the cells of the mesectoderm in stages 10-12. Mesectoderm expression extends beyond stage 12 in the middle pair of midline glia (MGM). In later stages, vvl is expressed in a uniform repeated pattern of ~25 nuclei per neuromere grouped into 5 distinctive clusters: 1) a midline cluster of four nuclei containing the MGM and a pair of RP motoneurons, 2) two symmetrical mediolateral clusters that contain the paired serotonergic neurons, and 3) two symmetrical lateral clusters.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{vvl-GAL4.14}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vvl-GAL4.41}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vvl-GAL4.43}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: TI{GAL4}vvlGAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
neuron | subset of medulla

Comment: expression at 24h APF

neuron | subset of lobula

Comment: expression at 24h APF

neuron | subset of lobula plate

Comment: expression at 24h APF

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\vvl in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of vvl
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of vvl
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
antennal glomerulus & neuron, with Scer\GAL4GH146
antennal glomerulus & neuron | somatic clone
glial cell & embryonic brain | embryonic stage 14
olfactory sensory organ & neuron & dendrite, with Scer\GAL4GH146
olfactory sensory organ & neuron & dendrite | somatic clone
wing & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (16)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (11)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (12)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190ASC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506T5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08Z4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DT0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0U0S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-17

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:6,790,158..6,794,941 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    65C5-65C5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0209402094 and P{lacW}l(3)L4060L4060
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    65A2-65E1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    65D-65D
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (40)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (153)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: vvl CG10037

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: vvl prd3

    Source for merge of: vvl ut

    Source for merge of: vvl sep

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The Hrp59 protein binds preferentially to a subset of mRNAs, including vvl mRNA.

    vvl may regulate dendritic targeting and coordinate dendritic and axonal connectivity of projection neurons in the olfactory system to ensure the highly stereotypes acquisition and delivery of olfactory information by the central olfactory neurons.

    D and vvl act in concert with sim to control midline gene expression in the embryo.

    vvl is required for the maintenance of btl expression during tracheal tree development. vvl is also required for the specific expression in the tracheal cells of tkv and rho. vvl makes the tracheal cells competent to further signalling through activation of its target genes.

    Maintenance of high level btl expression requires wild-type vvl function. Characterisation of btl regulatory sequences identifies seven high affinity and one low affinity vvl recognition elements, implying direct transcriptional regulation of btl expression by vvl.

    Tracheal cell migration defects in vvl mutant embryos are rescued by ubiquitous expression of btl.

    vvl function in CNS development is studied by misexpression of the protein both temporally and spatially. Results suggest that premature vvl expression disrupts initial mesectodermal lineage designation and therefore subsequent midline differentiation.

    Two variant POU domain recognition elements, DFRE1 and DFRE2, have been identified within a 514bp vvl autoregulatory enhancer. DFRE1 and DFRE2 show separable tissue-specific functions when independently disrupted or deleted.

    acj6 protein does not affect DNA binding by the vvl protein, and no interaction between the acj6 and vvl proteins can be detected.

    Examination of the mutant CNS and tracheal phenotypes suggests a requirement for vvl protein for the correct differentiation and/or migration of tracheal cells and midline glia in the CNS.

    The pattern of vvl expression during embryonic development has been analysed in wild-type and mutant embryos.

    Examination of CNS formation in vvl loss of function mutants suggest that the vvl gene is required for the correct differentiation of selected neurons and glia in the CNS. Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs suggest that vvl is capable of selectively altering mesectodermal cell fates.

    vvl is required in developmental processes as diverse as tracheal tree elongation and ventral ectoderm development during embryonic stages and cell proliferation and vein differentiation in the wing imaginal disc. It is proposed that vvl integrates information from different signaling molecules and in turn regulates the expression of specific cell differentiation genes during tracheal development and vein differentiation.

    vvl is required for the differentiation of dorsal and ventral veins, and for cell proliferation in internal regions of the wing.

    vvl links positional information and cell differentiation during embryonic and imaginal development. During embryogenesis vvl is required for the formation of the tracheal tree and in the patterning of the ventral ectoderm. During imaginal development vvl is required for cell proliferation and the differentiation of the wing veins. vvl expression is dependent on the coordinate activities of dpp, wg and hh. vvl interacts with other genes involved in vein differentiation, including rho, tkv, Egfr, dpp and N.

    Mutation in vvl causes abnormal positioning of the chordotonal organs.

    vvl is required for PNS development in the embryo.

    One of the homeodomain loci identified in a screen for genes encoding DNA binding proteins capable of binding to a consensus Engrailed binding site.

    An alternative transcript of Ipou, lacking two basic amino acids, is incapable of dimerizing with Cf1a.

    vvl contains a POU domain, and is expressed at maximum levels during early development.

    Cf1a is a transactivator of the Ddc gene and is coexpressed in subsets of neurons with Ipou during development. Ipou forms a highly stable heterodimeric complex with Cf1a and inhibits its ability to bind DNA and activate transcription of Ddc.

    Mutations in vvl have no pleiotropic phenotypes in embryonic patterns.

    vvl encodes a sequence specific DNA binding protein. The vvl gene product binds to a DNA region required for the expression of Ddc.

    ve, vn, ci, cg, svs, ast(S), H, Vno and vvl belong to the vein phenotypic group (Puro, 1982, Droso. Info. Serv. 58:205--208 ) within the 'lack-of-vein' mutant class. Loss-of-function alleles at these loci remove stretches of veins in two or more longitudinal veins. Double mutations within members of this group remove all veins, have smaller, slightly lanceolate wings, no sensilla and extra chaetae. Some mutant alleles of vvl prevent ventral vein differentiation. Embryonic lethal alleles also exist.

    Identified on the basis of similarity to a 600bp prd cDNA fragment which codes for the last 205 amino acids of prd.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Muller.

    Etymology

    Transheterozygous vvl mutants show lack of veins with a ventral component.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (37)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    prd3
    Name Synonyms
    Drifter/Ventral veinless
    Ventral Veinless
    Ventral veinless
    paired-like 3
    separated
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003995
    • FBgn0010170
    • FBgn0000285
    • FBgn0003146
    • FBgn0011727
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (262)