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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\amn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
amnesiac
Annotation Symbol
CG11937
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086782
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
amnesiac (amn) encodes an apparent pre-pro-neuropeptide that functions to prolong medium-term memory. In the adult, it is almost entirely concentrated in two large neurosecretory cells (Dorsal Paired Median cells). [Date last reviewed: 2019-02-28]
Also Known As

PACAP38, Drm-amn, cheapdate, PACAP

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:19,886,108..19,890,060 [-]
Recombination map

1-64

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:19886108..19890060
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Molecular Function (GO)
    [Detailed GO annotations]
    Experimental Evidence
    -
    Predictions / Assertions
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Required for associative learning and memory in adults. Expression pattern suggests a modulatory role in memory formation. Controls neurotransmitter-mediated signaling pathways associated with the structure of the larval peripheral nerve.
    (UniProt, Q24049)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    amn: amnesiac (J.C. Hall)
    Homozygous or hemizygous mutant flies can be conditioned to avoid odors associated with electric shocks, but effects of conditioning decay with a half life of 15 min compared to 60 min for normal. Memory decay biphasic; rapid for first hour and slow thereafter (Tully). Substitution of reward (1.0 M sucrose) for punishment (electric shock) lengthens memory span from one hour to six hours (Tempel, Bonini, Dawson, and Quinn, 1983, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1482-86). Groups of amn flies exhibit apparently abnormal acquisition of learning in tests using visual cues (Folkers, 1982, J. Insect. Physiol. 28: 535-39); it appears that short-term memory is defective in the mutant (in shock-odor tests), with long-term memory being normal (Tully and Quinn, 1985, J. Comp. Physiol. 157: 263-77); in experiments involving "operant" conditioning, with heat as the aversive unconditioned stimulus, amn exhibits a small decrement in learning per se and subsequently has no detectable memory (Mariath, 1985, J. Insect Physiol. 31: 779-81). In tests of "simple learning," amnesiac individuals habituate to or are sensitized by sugar stimuli subnormally; the sensitization defect maps to the same proximal locus as that affecting associative conditioning (Duerr and Quinn, 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3646-50). The effects on courtship behavior or preexposure to fertilized females decay more rapidly in amnesiac than in normal males (Siegel and Hall, 1979, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3430-34; Ackerman and Siegel, 1986, J. Neurogenet. 3: 111-23), but amnesiac males are defective in expressing after-effects of exposure to immature wild-type males when tested immediately after such exposure (Gailey, Jackson, and Siegel, 1982, Genetics 102: 771-82). Females defective in ability to be primed by courtship song (Kyriacou and Hall, 1984, Nature (London) 308: 62-65).
    Summary (Interactive Fly)
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\amn or the JBrowse view of Dmel\amn for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.46

    Gene model uncertain: The transcript structure and CDS of this gene are not well supported; it is predicted to encode a small neuropeptide (FBrf0132261). Although the CDS as annotated is not conserved, the region corresponding to the predicted post-translationally processed neuropeptide is conserved in the closer Sophophora species.

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0074802
    3953
    180
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0074571
    20.4
    180
    10.96
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\amn using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Gene Ontology (19 terms)
    Molecular Function (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from sequence or structural similarity
    traceable author statement
    Biological Process (17 terms)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from expression pattern
    inferred from direct assay
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Cellular Component (1 term)
    Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    Reporter: P{?GawB}amnX8
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnc651
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP0397
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2120
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2140
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2397
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2447
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2723
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP3161
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP3174
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP5084
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP6013
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7139
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7177
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7203
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7231
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{PZ}amnchpd
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\amn in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 84 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of amn
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of amn
    Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
    anterior fascicle & synapse | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map

    1-64

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:19,886,108..19,890,060 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    18F4-19A2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1116&P{EP}EP1344EP1344 and P{EP}amnEP1649&P{EP}amnEP1442
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (45)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: chpd amn

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: amn Pacap38

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      The expression pattern of amn, together with targetted mutant phenotypic analysis suggests a modulatory role for amn in memory formation. amn neuropeptide release from the dorsal paired medial cells onto the mushroom bodies is critical for normal olfactory memory.

      amn plays a role in memory as well as ethanol tolerance, but adult memory formation and ethanol sensitivity have different temporal and spatial requirements for amn function.

      The larval CNS and neuromuscular junctions have a PACAP-like immunoreactivity. Antibodies raised against mammalian PACAP38 identify a polypeptide of a similar size. Pacap38 may induce two temporally separated muscle responses: an early depolarisation and a late modulation of voltage-activated potassium currents. Muscle response is evoked by a high frequency stimulation of larval motor axons.

      Synaptic current and modulation of K+ current triggered by Pacap38 are mediated by coactivation of the Ras/Raf (Ras85D/phl) and rut cyclase pathways.

      Homozygous or hemizygous mutant flies can be conditioned to avoid odors associated with electric shocks, but effects of conditioning decay with a half life of 15 min compared to 60 min for normal. Memory decay biphasic; rapid for first hour and slow thereafter.

      Mutations in amn significantly reduce the females song memory after prestimulation with courtship hums. This suggests a simple sensitization process may be involved with the female pulse song memory (FBrf0041559).

      Memory retention curves and retrograde amnesia experiments suggest the amn mutations interferes with early memory formation.

      The effects on courtship behavior or pre-exposure to fertilized females decay more rapidly in amn than in normal males.

      Females defective in ability to be primed by courtship song.

      Substitution of reward (1.0 M sucrose) for punishment (electric shock) lengthens memory span from one hour to six hours.

      amn males are defective in expressing after-effects of exposure to immature wild-type males when tested immediately after such exposure.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      Sziber.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      PACAP-like
      PACAP38-like
      Pacap38
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0000076
      • FBgn0015274
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (275)