General Information
Symbol
Dmel\amn
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
amnesiac
Annotation Symbol
CG11937
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086782
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
PACAP38, PACAP, Drm-amn
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:19,886,108..19,890,060 [-]
Recombination map
1-64
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Protein Domains/Motifs
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Required for associative learning and memory in adults. Expression pattern suggests a modulatory role in memory formation. Controls neurotransmitter-mediated signaling pathways associated with the structure of the larval peripheral nerve.
(UniProt, Q24049)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
amn: amnesiac (J.C. Hall)
Homozygous or hemizygous mutant flies can be conditioned to avoid odors associated with electric shocks, but effects of conditioning decay with a half life of 15 min compared to 60 min for normal. Memory decay biphasic; rapid for first hour and slow thereafter (Tully). Substitution of reward (1.0 M sucrose) for punishment (electric shock) lengthens memory span from one hour to six hours (Tempel, Bonini, Dawson, and Quinn, 1983, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 1482-86). Groups of amn flies exhibit apparently abnormal acquisition of learning in tests using visual cues (Folkers, 1982, J. Insect. Physiol. 28: 535-39); it appears that short-term memory is defective in the mutant (in shock-odor tests), with long-term memory being normal (Tully and Quinn, 1985, J. Comp. Physiol. 157: 263-77); in experiments involving "operant" conditioning, with heat as the aversive unconditioned stimulus, amn exhibits a small decrement in learning per se and subsequently has no detectable memory (Mariath, 1985, J. Insect Physiol. 31: 779-81). In tests of "simple learning," amnesiac individuals habituate to or are sensitized by sugar stimuli subnormally; the sensitization defect maps to the same proximal locus as that affecting associative conditioning (Duerr and Quinn, 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 3646-50). The effects on courtship behavior or preexposure to fertilized females decay more rapidly in amnesiac than in normal males (Siegel and Hall, 1979, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3430-34; Ackerman and Siegel, 1986, J. Neurogenet. 3: 111-23), but amnesiac males are defective in expressing after-effects of exposure to immature wild-type males when tested immediately after such exposure (Gailey, Jackson, and Siegel, 1982, Genetics 102: 771-82). Females defective in ability to be primed by courtship song (Kyriacou and Hall, 1984, Nature (London) 308: 62-65).
Interactive Fly
pacap-like neuropeptide that activates the cAMP pathway stimulating learning and memory - along with CREB involved in medium-term memory by appetitive gustatory reinforcement in Drosophila larvae
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\amn or the JBrowse view of Dmel\amn for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model uncertain: The transcript structure and CDS of this gene are not well supported; it is predicted to encode a small neuropeptide (FBrf0132261). Although the CDS as annotated is not conserved, the region corresponding to the predicted post-translationally processed neuropeptide is conserved in the closer Sophophora species.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074802
3953
180
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074571
20.4
180
10.96
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\amn using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (21 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{?GawB}amnX8
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnc651
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP0397
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2120
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2140
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2397
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2447
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP2723
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP3161
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP3174
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP5084
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP6013
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7139
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7177
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7203
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}amnNP7231
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}amnchpd
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\amn in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 83 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of amn
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 4 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
anterior fascicle & synapse, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
anterior fascicle & synapse | supernumerary, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
Download
Models ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Interactions ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments ( 0 )
 
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
RNA-protein
Interacting group
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-64
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:19,886,108..19,890,060 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
18F4-19A2
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1116&P{EP}EP1344EP1344 and P{EP}amnEP1649&P{EP}amnEP1442
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (46)
Genomic Clones (18)
cDNA Clones (3)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: chpd amn
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: amn Pacap38
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    The expression pattern of amn, together with targetted mutant phenotypic analysis suggests a modulatory role for amn in memory formation. amn neuropeptide release from the dorsal paired medial cells onto the mushroom bodies is critical for normal olfactory memory.
    amn plays a role in memory as well as ethanol tolerance, but adult memory formation and ethanol sensitivity have different temporal and spatial requirements for amn function.
    The larval CNS and neuromuscular junctions have a PACAP-like immunoreactivity. Antibodies raised against mammalian PACAP38 identify a polypeptide of a similar size. Pacap38 may induce two temporally separated muscle responses: an early depolarisation and a late modulation of voltage-activated potassium currents. Muscle response is evoked by a high frequency stimulation of larval motor axons.
    Synaptic current and modulation of K+ current triggered by Pacap38 are mediated by coactivation of the Ras/Raf (Ras85D/phl) and rut cyclase pathways.
    Homozygous or hemizygous mutant flies can be conditioned to avoid odors associated with electric shocks, but effects of conditioning decay with a half life of 15 min compared to 60 min for normal. Memory decay biphasic; rapid for first hour and slow thereafter.
    Mutations in amn significantly reduce the females song memory after prestimulation with courtship hums. This suggests a simple sensitization process may be involved with the female pulse song memory (FBrf0041559).
    Memory retention curves and retrograde amnesia experiments suggest the amn mutations interferes with early memory formation.
    The effects on courtship behavior or pre-exposure to fertilized females decay more rapidly in amn than in normal males.
    Females defective in ability to be primed by courtship song.
    Substitution of reward (1.0 M sucrose) for punishment (electric shock) lengthens memory span from one hour to six hours.
    amn males are defective in expressing after-effects of exposure to immature wild-type males when tested immediately after such exposure.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Sziber.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    PACAP-like
    PACAP38-like
    Pacap38
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000076
    • FBgn0015274
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (266)