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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Cyt-c-d
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Cytochrome c distal
Annotation Symbol
CG13263
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0086907
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
cytochrome c, bln, DC3, Cyt c, blanks
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:16,715,891..16,719,635 [+]
Recombination map
2-52
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the cytochrome c family. (P04657)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CYTOCHROME C -
Cytochrome c is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in electron transfer as part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Cytochrome c is located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and functions as a single electron carrier from ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex to Cytochrome c oxidase. (Adapted from PMID:21296189).
OTHER OXIDOREDUCTASES -
The Other oxidoreductases, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major oxidoreductases.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
(UniProt, P04657)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Cyt-c1 and Cyt-c2: Cytochrome c
Apparently the structural genes for two cytochrome-c type enzymes, which differ from each other in 32/107 amino-acid residues. Cyt-c1 (sequence D3) expressed at constant, but relatively low, level throughout development; Cyt-c2 (sequence D4) expressed at varying, but relatively high, levels throughout development. Amino acid sequence also given in Handbook of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology: Proteins (Fasman, ed.) CRC Press, Cleveland, Vol. 3, pp. 282-83.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Cyt-c-d or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Cyt-c-d for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080888
837
105
FBtr0335141
767
105
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080445
11.4
105
9.95
FBpp0307140
11.4
105
9.95
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

105 aa isoforms: Cyt-c-d-PA, Cyt-c-d-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
(UniProt, P04657)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Cyt-c-d using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (12 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002327, InterPro:IPR009056
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000238899
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000238899
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003809
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003809
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000238899
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Cyt-c-d-XR is expressed at a low and steady level in all developmental stages and all adult body parts examined.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{PZ}Cyt-c-dbln1
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Cyt-c-d in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Cyt-c-d
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Cyt-c-d
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
8 of 13
Yes
No
5 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
6 of 12
Yes
No
5 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
No
10 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
No
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190J4C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150G3I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0K4L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0KAN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0UQY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
8 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-52
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:16,715,891..16,719,635 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36A11-36A11
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}grpEP921&P{lacW}l(2)k13905k13905 and P{lacW}gluk08819
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36A1-36B6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    36A10-36A11
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    2-[52]
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (30)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Cyt-c-d bln
    Additional comments
    Other Comments
    Cyt-c-d regulates developmental apoptosis in the eye.
    Cyt-c-d is neither necessary nor sufficient for caspase activation and apoptosis in Drosophila cells.
    Postmeiotic differentiation defect.
    The Cyt-c-d protein could not be detected as a functional cytochrome molecule at any stage of development.
    Cyt-c-d encodes a functional cytochrome c protein. Cyt-c-d is expressed at constant low levels throughout development and the predicted polypeptide sequence differs from Cyt-c-p at 32 amino acid residues. Cyt-c-d and Cyt-c-p are located 3.5kb apart and have arisen from an ancient duplication event.
    A cDNA clone for the thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene from M.sexta has been used to isolate the corresponding major thoracic muscle cytochrome c gene from D.melanogaster. Hybridisation studies reveal that Cyt-c-d is expressed at almost undetectable levels in adult thoracic muscle tissue. Cyt-c-d shares limited nucleotide homology with Cyt-c-p.
    Apparently the structural gene for one of two cytochrome-c type enzymes, which differ from each other in 32/107 amino-acid residues. First isolated from a Charon-4 library using mouse cytochrome-c gene sequence as a probe. Cyt-c-d (sequence D3) expressed at constant, but relatively low, level throughout development; Cyt-c-p (sequence D4) expressed at varying, but relatively high, levels throughout development. Amino acid sequence also given in Fasman (1977).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 63 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (33)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Cyt-c1
    CytC-1
    ms(2)04445
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000408
    • FBgn0011213
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (121)