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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Vrp1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Verprolin 1
Annotation Symbol
CG13503
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0243516
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Verprolin 1 (Vrp1) encodes the sole Drosophila homolog of the conserved Verprolin/WASp-interacting-protein family of actin regulators. It facilitates myoblast fusion in somatic muscles by recruiting the branched-actin polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast-myotube attachment and fusion. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
sltr, D-WIP, solitary, wip, Verprolin
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:22,106,107..22,122,562 [-]
Recombination map
2-98
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Summary (Interactive Fly)
facilitator of myoblast fusion - homolog of the conserved Verprolin/WASp Interacting Protein family of WASp-binding proteins - recruits the actin-polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast attachment and fusion
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
12
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Vrp1 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Vrp1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0071793
3823
751
FBtr0071791
3686
751
FBtr0071795
3345
751
FBtr0071794
3331
751
FBtr0071796
3263
761
FBtr0071792
3407
708
FBtr0113104
4017
852
FBtr0302295
3134
718
FBtr0302296
3410
809
FBtr0302297
3888
809
FBtr0302298
3216
708
FBtr0342980
3281
767
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0071706
76.4
751
11.89
FBpp0071704
76.4
751
11.89
FBpp0071708
76.4
751
11.89
FBpp0071707
76.4
751
11.89
FBpp0071709
77.6
761
11.99
FBpp0071705
71.2
708
11.98
FBpp0112017
86.3
852
11.96
FBpp0291501
72.5
718
12.08
FBpp0291502
81.1
809
12.05
FBpp0291503
81.1
809
12.05
FBpp0291504
71.2
708
11.98
FBpp0309744
78.3
767
11.94
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

751 aa isoforms: Vrp1-PA, Vrp1-PB, Vrp1-PC, Vrp1-PD
708 aa isoforms: Vrp1-PF, Vrp1-PK
809 aa isoforms: Vrp1-PI, Vrp1-PJ
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Vrp1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001506182
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

embryonic somatic muscle

Comment: expressed in fusion-competent myoblasts at sites of fusion

Additional Descriptive Data
Vrp1 is expressed in somatic and visceral muscle starting in embryonic stage 11 and persists in somatic muscle until the end of stage 14 when fusion is completed. It is observed in fusion-competent cells but not in founder cells. It is found within the cytoplasm, specifically at sites of fusion.
Vrp1 expressionis absent during early stages, and is first observed at stage 11 in mesodermal muscle precursors, resolving into myoblast-specific expression that peaks at stage 14, then diminishes and disappears by stage 16.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Vrp1 protein expression is specific to fusion competent cells, and is not expressed in muscle founder cells.
Vrp1 is strongly expressed in muscles. It is found in both embryonic visceral mesoderm and somatic muscle as well as muscle attachment sites. Expression in the visceral mesoderm is specific to fusion competent cells and it is not found in muscle founder cells.
Vrp1 is expressed in somatic and visceral muscle starting in embryonic stage 11 and persists in somatic muscle until the end of stage 14 when fusion is completed. It is observed in fusion-competent cells but not in founder cells. It is found within the cytoplasm, specifically at sites of fusion.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Vrp1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Vrp1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Vrp1
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
actin filament & fusion competent cell
actin filament & muscle founder cell
exocytic vesicle & fusion competent cell
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
2 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091909AK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150ECM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0HPY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-98
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:22,106,107..22,122,562 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    58B8-58B9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG6393EP2457 and P{PZ}ari-207768
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (125)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: D-WIP CG13503
      Source for identity of: sltr CG13503
      Source for identity of: Vrp1 CG13503
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      EM analysis reveals abnormal accumulations of prefusion vesicles along the apposing membranes of adhering myoblasts in CG13503 mutant embryos, indicating a role of the actin cytoskeleton in targeting and fusion of these vesicles to proper sites on the plasma membrane.
      Vrp1 is required for F-actin accumulation at sites of fusion in fusion-competent cells during muscle formation in the embryo.
      CG13503, which is expressed specifically in myoblasts, associates with both the CG13503-Arp2/3 system, and with the myoblast fusion receptors kirre and sns, thereby recruiting the actin polymerization machinery to sites of myoblast attachment and fusion.
      Embryonic injection of dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in a reduction in myoblast function, with an overall reduction and disorganisation of muscle fibers.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: reduced F-actin and altered cell shape.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0034695
      • FBgn0086255
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (79)