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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Prosα6
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Proteasome α6 subunit
Annotation Symbol
CG4904
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0250843
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As

Pros35, α6, PROS-35, anon- SAGE:Wang-116 , Proteasome 35kD subunit

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:10,221,351..10,222,546 [+]
Recombination map

2-40

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:10221351..10222546
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. (P12881)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PROTEASOME SUBUNITS -
The 26S proteasome degrades polyubiquitinated proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is formed from a cylindrical catalytic core 20S proteasome capped at each end by a regulatory 19S particle. The 19S regulatory particle recognizes, unfolds, and translocates ubiquitinated proteins into the catalytic core particle in an ATP-dependent manner. (Adapted from FBrf0215459).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity.
(UniProt, P12881)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Pros35: Proteasome 35
Encodes the 35 kd proteasome subunit of Drosophila melanogaster. The proteasome is strongly expressed in the central nervous system of embryos and the heart muscle and epithelial cells of the stomach and ovary of adults and is localized in the cytoplasm in some cells and/or the nucleus in others.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Prosα6 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Prosα6 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079948
1027
279
FBtr0343606
1070
279
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079538
31.1
279
6.52
FBpp0310201
31.1
279
6.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

279 aa isoforms: Prosα6-PA, Prosα6-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel (By similarity). Interacts with PI31.

(UniProt, P12881)
Crossreferences
MEROPS - An information resource for peptidases (also termed proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and the proteins that inhibit them.
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Prosα6 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (11 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
contributes_to endopeptidase activity
inferred by curator from GO:0000502
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001353, InterPro:IPR023332
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred by curator from GO:0000502
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000174701
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P40302
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000175095
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Prosα6 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Prosα6
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Prosα6
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
No
8 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190DZP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915091M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09YK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08QV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0DNK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (23)
8 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel (By similarity). Interacts with PI31.
    (UniProt, P12881 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-40

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:10,221,351..10,222,546 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    31B1-31B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k06324k06324 and P{lacW}me31Bk06607
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    89F-90A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (6)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (157)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Prosα6 Pros35

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Pros35 anon- SAGE:Wang-116

    Additional comments

    The nomenclature of genes encoding subunits of the 26S proteasome of D. melanogaster have been standardized according to FBrf0215459. These symbols/names largely follow those used already in FlyBase, and largely mirror fly community usage. HOWEVER, note that at least one other nomenclature system exists that is followed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), for example, with the unfortunate result that several D. melanogaster genes have shared synonyms.

    Other Comments

    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    The Pros35 gene has been cloned and sequenced, and its genomic organisation has been analysed. Analysis of Pros35-Ppyr\LUC promoter deletion constructs shows that the Pros35 promoter region between -605 and -330bp contains sequences that are important for Pros35 gene activity, and that deletions beyond -150bp result in an almost complete inhibition of transcription.

    The cellular distribution of the proteasome during embryogenesis has been investigated using an antibody that recognises Pros35 proteasome subunit.

    Encodes the 35kD proteasome subunit of D.melanogaster. The proteasome is strongly expressed in the central nervous system of embryos and the heart muscle and epithelial cells of the stomach and ovary of adults and is localized in the cytoplasm in some cells and/or the nucleus in others.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 87 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MEROPS - An information resource for peptidases (also termed proteases, proteinases and proteolytic enzymes) and the proteins that inhibit them.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    20S proteasome
    20S α6 subunit
    20s proteasome
    Proteasome 35 kD subunit
    Proteasome 35-kDa subunit
    Proteasome 35kD subunit
    Proteasome 35kDa subunit
    Proteasome α6 subunit
    anon- SAGE:Wang-116
    α-subunit of 20S proteasome
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003151
    • FBgn0066882
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (93)