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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\lmgA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
lemming A
Annotation Symbol
CG34440
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0250903
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
lemming A (lmgA) encodes the RING-finger containing Apc11 subunit of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase (E3). Together with the cullin subunit encoded by Apc2, it forms the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the APC/C. [Date last reviewed: 2019-02-28] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

lmg, l(2)03424, lemming, APC11

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-33
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:8524999..8528618
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR024991
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129916
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:14452
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129916
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000129805
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
lemming A (lmgA) encodes the RING-finger containing Apc11 subunit of the APC/C ubiquitin ligase (E3). Together with the cullin subunit encoded by Apc2, it forms the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the APC/C. [Date last reviewed: 2019-02-28]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER RING DOMAIN UBIQUITIN LIGASES -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX -
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Active during mitosis and G1 phases of the cell cycle, it mediates the degradation of cyclins and other key cell cycle regulators triggering the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis. (Adapted from PMID:12208841).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\lmgA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.54

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0079695
2953
85
FBtr0112743
2014
85
FBtr0333419
3507
85
FBtr0336885
510
85
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079303
9.9
85
7.89
FBpp0111655
9.9
85
7.89
FBpp0305611
9.9
85
7.89
FBpp0307833
9.9
85
7.89
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

85 aa isoforms: lmgA-PA, lmgA-PB, lmgA-PC, lmgA-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\lmgA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

lmgA transcripts are seen at all stages of development tested with the highest levels in late pupae and persisting into adults. Levels of mono- and dicistronic lmg transcripts are very similar.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\lmgA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of lmgA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of lmgA
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 5 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JG7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150GNQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0L8Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0LG3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G17LB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-33
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    29D4-29D5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k03706k03706&P{lacW}Acerk07704 and P{PZ}lmg03424
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    29D4-29D5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (4)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (419)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: lmgA lmg

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: lmg CG18042

      Additional comments

      The "lemming" locus gives rise to a dicistronic transcript. The two open reading frames (ORFs) are lmgA (upstream ORF) and lmgB (downstream ORF). The lethal, morphological and mitotic phenotypes of the Df(2L)lmg138 deletion (which affects both open reading frames) are rescued by expression of the lmgA ORF alone and the lmgB ORF does not appear to be efficiently translated in S2 cells.

      One or more of the processed transcripts for this gene contain(s) two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). The non-overlapping ORFs are represented by lmg (CG34440) and CG34441 (CG34441).

      Source for merge of lmg CG18042 was sequence comparison ( date:000423 ).

      Other Comments

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      Mutations in lmg lead to abnormal mitoses and apoptosis in imaginal cells.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (15)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (54)