General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mnb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
minibrain
Annotation Symbol
CG42273
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0259168
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Dual-specificity kinase (2.7.12.1)
Gene Snapshot
Minibrain (Mnb) is a Ser/Thr protein kinase of the DYRK subfamily. Mnb interacts with several signaling pathways and it is involved in behavior, cell cycle, cytoskeleton dynamics, neural proliferation, neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and tissue growth. [Date last reviewed: 2016-09-01]
Also Known As
ME-IV, minibrain, DYRK1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:17,862,697..17,887,222 [-]
Recombination map
1-59
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MNB/DYRK subfamily. (P49657)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.12.1)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
DUAL SPECIFICITY TYROSINE-PHOSPHORYLATION REGULATED KINASES -
The DYRK (Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase) family kinases phosphorylate serine/threonine on other proteins (trans-phosphorylation), but can also autophosphorylate on tyrosine. Autophosphorylation within the activation loop occurs while still attached to the ribosome. (Adapted from PMID:15960979).
Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Role in the specific control of proper proliferation of optic lobe neuronal progeny.
(UniProt, P49657)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mnb: minibrain (J.C. Hall)
Brain mass approximately half normal, including smaller than normal optic lobes and reduction in cell number (Fischbach and Heisenberg, 1984; Heisenberg and Wolf, 1984); exceptions: neuropile of the lamina optic ganglion appears normal in size and general morphology, and peduncle of mushroom body has apparently normal number of fibers; mnb flies take abnormally long to eclose (i.e., emergence per se from the pupal case is a slow process); behaviorally, mnb leads to relatively subtle behavioral defects, such as mild leg shaking under ether (see "other information"), absence of learning in tests using olfactory stimuli (Heisenberg et al., 1985), and aberrant visual fixation. In tests of locomotor activity rhythms (Helfrich, 1986), singly mutant mnb adults are basically normal, but a high proportion of mnb so double mutants show complex rhymicities (dual circadian periodicities) with about 20% being arrhythmic (3 times greater than wild type). Other behaviors, such as basic optomotor responses (M. Heisenberg, unpublished) and male courtship song (Kulkarni and Hall, 1987, Genetics 115: 461-475), are normal; physiologically, mnb--when linked to reduced optic lobes and small optic lobes mutations--has been tested for effects on electroretinogram, which have diminished amplitudes of light-on and light-off transient spikes in the triple mutant (Coombe, 1986, J. Comp. Physiol. 159: 655-665).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\mnb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\mnb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Due to an oversight in the implementation of gene annotation merges, the symbols for some of the transcripts and polypeptides of this gene were changed to non-unique designations in r5.8. Although there were no conflicts within a given release, the same symbols were used for different isoforms in different releases. The affected gene product symbols have now been changed to symbols not used previously in the database; see individual transcript reports for details.
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0300508
5507
908
FBtr0299619
4460
607
FBtr0300509
4257
604
FBtr0300510
4228
1047
FBtr0342786
2978
743
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.5, 4.4, 4.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0289735
95.9
908
9.11
FBpp0288894
66.3
607
9.49
FBpp0289736
65.9
604
9.28
FBpp0289737
111.1
1047
8.45
FBpp0309627
81.1
743
8.49
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
843, 542, 539 (aa); 90, 60, 58 (kD observed); 89, 59.4, 59.1 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mnb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR028318
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR028318
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
mnb protein is expressed in a subset of neurons in the adult brain, including some symmetrically located neurons, posterior to the antennal lobe. Ten of these neurons co-express sNPF protein. None of the neurons labeled by mnb co-express Scer\GAL4Ilp2.PR.
mnb protein is expressed in the cell bodies of at least 10 symmetrically localized median brain neurons behind the antennal lobe that also express sNPF-R protein.
Higher levels of the 843aa form of mnb protein are observed in embryos and pupae than larvae.
Higher levels of the 542aa form of mnb protein are observed in embryos and pupae than larvae.
The 539aa form of mnb is expressed most strongly in larvae and pupae and is the predominant form in third instar larvae.
mnb protein is most prominent in the mushroom body neuropil and the outer proliferation centers of the optic lobes in the larval brain. In adult brains, the level of mnb protein is low in the optic lobes and central brain hemispheres but is high in retinal pigment cells as well as in the α, β, and γ cells and the peduncle of the mushroom bodies.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mnb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (12)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906W9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150425 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03U4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04WD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03J7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
    The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-59
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:17,862,697..17,887,222 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    16E4-16E4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1464 and P{EP}EP970
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    1-58.2
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (67)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: mnb CG7835
      Additional comments
      Annotations CG7826 and CG7835 merged as CG42273 in release 5.8 of the genome annotation.
      Apparently part of 'Sh complex'. Seems to be allelic to Sh, given map position and mnb-associated leg shaking (A. Ferrus and M. Heisenberg, unpublished); yet, Sh mutations do not lead to any grossly aberrant brain morphology and Sh5 plus Sh14 complement mnb1 with regard to anatomical defects caused by the latter (M. Heisenberg, unpublished); mnb1 also complements lethal alleles of 3 genes mapping just distally to Sh alleles (see Tanouye, Lam and Iverson, 1986), i.e., l(1)16Fa, l(1)16Fb and l(1)16Fc; an X-linked enhancer of mnb has been identified, which causes lethality when expressed along with the latter (M. Heisenberg, unpublished); the former maps near cv and (when in combination with mnb1) leads to death late in pupation (mutants can be 'rescued' by opening the pupal case).
      Other Comments
      mnb is transiently expressed in postembryonic ganglion cells, where it promotes their cell cycle exit through two regulatory mechanisms which each result in upregulation of dap expression.
      When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, an increase in the proportion of S phase cells and/or aneuploidy, an increase in the proportion of G2/M phase cells, an increase in mitotic index and abnormal spindles are seen.
      Mutations in mnb cause an abnormal spacing of neuroblasts in the outer proliferation centre of the larval brain. As a consequence the larval brain exhibits a specific and marked reduction of the optic lobes and central brain hemispheres. The insufficient number of distinct neurons in the brain is correlated with specific abnormalities in visual and olfactory behaviour.
      mnb is important for the viability of neurons in the brain.
      Defined during a molecular analysis of Sh.
      mnb, when in combination with rol and sol, shows diminished amplitudes of light-on and light-off transient spikes.
      In tests of locomotor activity rhythms, singly mutant mnb adults are basically normal, but a high proportion of mnb so double mutants show complex rhythmicities (dual circadian periodicities) with about 20% being arrhythmic (3 times greater than wild type).
      Behavioural and anatomical studies demonstrate that central brain lesions can be interpreted behaviourally. Mushroom bodies have normal size and shape. Whole brain is reduced in volume, flies are incapable of olfactory learning.
      Brain mass approximately half normal, including smaller than normal optic lobes and reduction in cell number, with the exceptions of the neuropil of the lamina optic ganglion which appears normal in size and the general morphology and peduncle of mushroom body which has apparently normal number of fibers.
      Isolation: A mutagenized X provided by J. Merriam.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      M. Heisenberg.
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
      Reported As
      Name Synonyms
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0002777
      • FBgn0030879
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (110)