General Information
Symbol
Dmel\grh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
grainy head
Annotation Symbol
CG42311
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0259211
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
NTF-1, Elf-1, Gh, l(2)06850, Elf1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:17,801,132..17,842,820 [+]
Recombination map
2-84
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the grh/CP2 family. Grainyhead subfamily. (P13002)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
POLYCOMB GROUP RECRUITERS/DNA-BINDING PROTEINS -
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators, best characterized for the repression of Hox gene expression. In Drosophila, PcG proteins repress their target genes by binding to specific DNA elements called Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). PcG DNA binding proteins contribute to the recruitment of Polycomb complexes to PREs. (Adapted from FBrf0228921).
OTHER DNA BINDING DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Other DNA binding domain transcription factors group is a collection of DNA-binding transcription factors that do not fit into any of the other major domain-based transcription factor groups.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Binds a CNS-specific regulatory element of the Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene. Also interacts with sequences adjacent to other transcription units, including Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and engrailed (en). Activity in vivo may be required only at high levels transiently to activate the expression of Ddc in the CNS.
(UniProt, P13002)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Ntf: Neurogenic element binding transcription factor
Gene encodes at least three isoforms of a protein that binds to upstream sequences of Ddc, en, ftz, and Ubx. The proteins share epitopes as recognized by two monoclonal antibodies. Expression first detected in 4-to-8 hour embryos, peaking from 8 to 12 hours and declining from 12 to 16 hours; NTF protein detected in nuclei of ectodermal derivatives; seen in all epidermal cells and changing subsets of neurons in the developing central nervous system.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
8
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\grh or the JBrowse view of Dmel\grh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0300538
3972
1032
FBtr0299705
4768
1063
FBtr0299706
6199
1333
FBtr0299707
3438
784
FBtr0300539
6692
1302
FBtr0300541
3181
729
FBtr0306625
3094
698
FBtr0345791
6230
1063
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
10.6, 7.4 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0289765
113.0
1032
6.16
FBpp0288983
116.1
1063
6.19
FBpp0288984
143.9
1333
6.04
FBpp0288985
87.6
784
6.41
FBpp0289766
140.9
1302
6.01
FBpp0289768
80.4
729
6.51
FBpp0297580
77.4
698
6.48
FBpp0311781
116.1
1063
6.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1063 aa isoforms: grh-PI, grh-PP
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1333, 1303, 1063, 1032 (aa)
1063 (aa); 116 (kD predicted)
120, 83 (aa); 140 (kD observed)
Comments
The DNA-binding region of the 1063aa grh protein maps to a 263 amino acid region between residues 603 and 865. Data suggests that grh protein functions as a dimer, both when bound to DNA and free in solution. The major dimerization is in the carboxyl region and is dependent on residues between 949 and 1063. Dimerization of grh protein stabilizes the interaction with DNA.
The 1032aa form of grh protein binds DNA as a dimer and forms dimers in solution. The binding and dimerization domains map to a 400aa region encompassing the HLH homology region and extending beyond it. grh is a potent transcriptional activator in a cotransfection assay in Schneider cells. The activation domain maps to an isoleucine-rich domain of 56 amino acids between residues 173-228. The domain is active both in Schneider cells and in embryo extracts. No evidence was found for protein interaction between grh protein and Taf4 protein.
Binds to element I of Ddc promoter.
grh protein was purified from embyronic nuclear extracts.
grh protein was purified from embryonic extracts. Three prominent polypeptides of 140, 120, and 83kD were observed. All of these bind to promoter elements within the Ddc, Ubx, and ftz genes. The purified protein was shown to act as binding site-dependent transcription factor in vitro.
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\grh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (23 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000867451
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000867451
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (18 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000867451
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000112980
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

organism | dorsal | ubiquitous

Comment: stronger on dorsal than ventral side

organism | dorsal | lateral

Comment: absent from a ventral midline band 15-20 cells wide

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
grh transcript is detected in egg chambers and in pre-blastoderm embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
grh protein expression persists in epidermal cells and in parts of the foregut and hindgut in the larval period. It is also detected in the trachea, anterior spiracles, proventriculus, and in cells that secrete the head skeleton. grh protein is expressed uniformly in the imaginal discs and in the optic lobes.
grh protein is first detected at stage 11 in the epidermis and CNS. grh protein expression remains fairly constant in the epidermis but changes with developmental time in the CNS. Early on, grh protein is detected in one or two medial nuclei per segmental neuromere. Later, it is detected in more lateral nuclei in a pattern that changes as development proceeds. At stage 15, expression is observed in around 30 cells per neuromere in a segmentally repeated pattern. By stage 17, the number of nuclei expressing the protein has decreased particularly in the abdominal regions of the ventral nerve cord. grh protein is also detected in small regions of the foregut and the hindgut. grh protein and Ddc protein are not co-expressed in the same cells in late embryos. Co-expression was observed in primary cultures of neuroblasts.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Ddc-lacZ.be1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Ddc-lacZ.be2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{grh-GAL4.15}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{grh-Gal4.D4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{grh-lacZ.NB}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\grh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 30 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of grh
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
Other relevant insertions
miscellaneous insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 21 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of grh
Allele of grh
Mutagen
Associated Transgenic Construct
Stocks
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of grh
GAL4 construct
Name
Expression Data
reporter construct
Name
Expression Data
Deletions and Duplications ( 20 )
Summary of Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
larval thorax & neuroblast (with Df(2R)Pcl7B)
larval thorax & neuroblast | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No orthologs reported.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901G2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506S1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06Y1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07YL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of secreted FGFs - bnl or ths/pyr to receptor tyrosine kinases btl or htl, respectively, to initiate signaling primarily via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase (ERK) cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0221038).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-84
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:17,801,132..17,842,820 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    54E10-54F1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}subEP616 and P{PZ}grh06850&P{lacW}olf186-Fk11505
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    54F1-54F2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    54F-54F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (25)
    Genomic Clones (27)
    cDNA Clones (59)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: grh l(2)06850
    Source for merge of: grh CG30111
    Source for merge of: CG30111 BcDNA:LD38807
    Additional comments
    Annotations CG5058 and CG30111 merged as CG42311 in release 5.9 of the genome annotation.
    Source for merge of CG30111 BcDNA:LD38807 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).
    Other Comments
    In the thorax, grh prolongs neural proliferation by maintaining a mitotically active neuroblast. In the abdomen, grh is a terminal neuroblast factor that restricts postembryonic lineage size by promoting the proapoptotic subfunction of abd-A.
    New annotation (CG30111) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
    The structure and function of grh mRNAs has been examined.
    grh mutations do not show any dominant interaction with Ubx mutants, or affect expression of Ubx when also mutant for z.
    Variation of a microsatellite within the grh locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.
    Binding sites for the grh transcription factor contribute to the ventral repression of dpp.
    The grh and Trl factors bind to the 11bp tor response element in the tll promoter, raising the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of tll expression.
    The interaction of grh with its cognate DNA has been studied to characterise the functional domains. Data suggests that domains within grh may interact to regulate the activity of grh protein.
    In vivo and in vitro assays have been used to map the DNA binding domains, the dimerization domain and transcriptional activation domain of the grh gene product.
    Identified in 2D gels of CMW W2 wing imaginal disc cell proteins.
    Ubx promoter-Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs have been used to study the role of grh in the regulation of Ubx transcription.
    Gene encodes at least three isoforms of a protein that binds to upstream sequences of Ddc, en, ftz and Ubx. The proteins share epitopes as recognized by two monoclonal antibodies. Expression first detected in 4-to-8 hour embryos, peaking from 8 to 12 hours and declining from 12 to 16 hours; NTF protein detected in nuclei of ectodermal derivatives; seen in all epidermal cells and changing subsets of neurons in the developing central nervous system.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 87 )
    Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    Linkouts
    ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:LD38807
    EG:191D12.1
    NTF-1/Elf-1
    Ntf1
    grh
    (Daniel et al., 2018, Dasari et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Otsuki and Brand, 2018, Reichardt et al., 2018, Li et al., 2017, Yao et al., 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Lycette et al., 2016, Öztürk-Çolak et al., 2016, Sandler and Stathopoulos, 2016, Stratmann et al., 2016, Zacharioudaki et al., 2016, Bivik et al., 2015, Ghasemi et al., 2015, Katzenberger et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Housden et al., 2014, Tsikala et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Dai et al., 2013, Gisselbrecht et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Vasanthi et al., 2013, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Berger et al., 2012, Brody et al., 2012, Carney et al., 2012, Gangishetti et al., 2012, Paré et al., 2012, Pearson et al., 2012, Spokony and White, 2012.11.14, Venables et al., 2012, Benito-Sipos et al., 2011, Gambis et al., 2011, Garcia and Stathopoulos, 2011, Juarez et al., 2011, Shaik et al., 2011, Boyle et al., 2010, Harrison et al., 2010, Karlsson et al., 2010, Losada-Pérez et al., 2010, Maurel-Zaffran et al., 2010, Baumgardt et al., 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Pearson et al., 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Steinel and Whitington, 2009, Carrera et al., 2008, Dougherty et al., 2008, Kucherenko et al., 2008, Lichtneckert et al., 2008, Maurange et al., 2008, Narasimha et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Krattinger et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Blastyak et al., 2006, Choksi et al., 2006, Lovegrove et al., 2006, Luschnig et al., 2006, Muller and Kassis, 2006, Walker et al., 2006, Xylourgidis et al., 2006, Almeida and Bray, 2005, Cenci and Gould, 2005, Mace et al., 2005, Mace et al., 2005, Moussian and Uv, 2005, Odenwald, 2005, Tuckfield et al., 2002)
    hsk
    l(2)IM45
    l(2)s2140
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004586
    • FBgn0000572
    • FBgn0001136
    • FBgn0010628
    • FBgn0010683
    • FBgn0013964
    • FBgn0014968
    • FBgn0026798
    • FBgn0050111
    • FBgn0047195
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (274)