General Information
Symbol
Dmel\crb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
crumbs
Annotation Symbol
CG6383
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0259685
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Crumbs is a transmembrane protein that binds to multiple proteins such as sdt, par-6, AP-2α, yrt, ex and Moe. It contributes to organization of zonula adherens, epithelial morphogenesis, apico-basal cell polarity, and is a negative regulator of Notch activity and growth control via the Hippo pathway. In photoreceptor cells it is involved in morphogenesis, ninaE trafficking and prevention of light-dependent photoreceptor degeneration. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Crumbs, l(3)07207, Crbs, far, l(3)j1B5
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:24,295,078..24,314,541 [+]
Recombination map
3-84
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Crumbs protein family. (P10040)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Plays a central role in cell polarity establishment (PubMed:2344615, PubMed:12900452, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11740560). Participates in the assembly, positioning and maintenance of adherens junctions via its interaction with the SAC complex (PubMed:11740560, PubMed:12900452, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11076972). Controls the coalescence of the spots of zonula adherens (ZA) into a adhesive ring around the cells (PubMed:11740560). It may act as a signal (PubMed:2344615). Involved in morphogenesis of the photoreceptor rhabdomere, for positioning and growth of rhabdomere and AJ during the crucial period of photoreceptor extension along the proximodistal axis of the retina (PubMed:12900452). Component of the crb-galla-Xpd (CGX) complex which is essential for proper mitotic chromosome segregation in early embryos (PubMed:25065591). The CGX complex is also required for cell proliferation in developing wing disks (PubMed:25065591). In the CGX complex, acts with galla-1 or galla-2 to recruit Xpd and thus form the functional complex.
(UniProt, P10040)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
crb: crumbs
Homozygous lethal; many small holes in cuticle.
Interactive Fly
transmembrane - egf repeats - laminin A homolog - involved in epithelial polarity - binds to multiple proteins such as Stardust, Par-6, AP-2α, Yurt, Expanded and Moesin - contributes to organization of zonula adherens, epithelial morphogenesis, apico-basal cell polarity, and is a negative regulator of Notch activity and growth control via the Hippo pathway - involved in photocell morphogenesis, NinaE trafficking and prevention of light-dependent photoreceptor degeneration
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\crb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\crb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084603
7543
2146
FBtr0111008
7672
2189
FBtr0304726
7973
2253
FBtr0334925
7714
2203
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
7.7, 7.5 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083987
233.6
2146
4.50
FBpp0110307
238.6
2189
4.53
FBpp0293268
244.7
2253
4.55
FBpp0306945
240.5
2203
4.58
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
2139 (aa); 234 (kD)
Comments
crb protein is used as a marker for the boundary cells that delineate the dorsal and ventral domains of the embryonic large intestine.
Four Cys-poor regions of crb are distantly related to domains present in the C-terminal part of laminin-A chains and merosin. This homology suggests that the Cys-poor regions may be directly involved in its role in epithelial organization.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the SAC complex, a complex composed of crb, Patj and sdt (PubMed:11740560, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11076972). May interact with the par-6 complex, which is composed of par-6, baz and aPKC, via its interaction with Patj (PubMed:12900452, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11076972). Interacts with other proteins with Patj and sdt via its short cytoplasmic tail (PubMed:11740560). Component of the CGX complex composed of crb, galla (galla-1 or galla-2) and Xpd (PubMed:25065591). Able to interact independently (via intracellular domain) with galla-1, galla-2 and Xpd (PubMed:25065591).
(UniProt, P10040)
Post Translational Modification
Phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic domain.
(UniProt, P10040)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\crb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (47 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001881, InterPro:IPR018097
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (38 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (38 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ex; FB:FBgn0004583
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ex; FB:FBgn0004583
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Mer; FB:FBgn0086384
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:kibra; FB:FBgn0262127
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ex; FB:FBgn0004583
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Mer; FB:FBgn0086384
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:kibra; FB:FBgn0262127
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
epithelial cell

Comment: clustered apical distribution

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
epithelial cell

Comment: clustered apical distribution

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
crb protein is detected in the scolopale cell lumen of the chordotonal organs.
crb protein localizes to the stalk of the rhabdomere. It is seen in this location from about 50% through pupal development only in rhabdomeres R2, R4, R5 and R7, because R1, R3 and R6 lack stalks at this stage.
Protein is observed concentrated in cells undergoing apical constriction during invagination of the salivary gland primordia.
The expression of crb protein is used as a marker for the apical surface of the hindgut epithelium. crb protein is detected outlining the lumina of the hidgut and malpighian tubules. crb protein is additionally detected in all ectodermally derived epithelia.
crb protein is expressed in the apical membrane domain of the epithelial cells of imaginal discs and follicle cells in a reticular pattern outlining the borders of the cells.
crb protein is observed on the apical membranes of epithelial cells.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{crb-lacZ.43.2}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\crb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 68 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of crb
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
    Other relevant insertions
    insertion of enhancer trap binary system
    Name
    Expression Data
    insertion of mobile activating element
    Name
    Expression Data
    miscellaneous insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 56 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of crb
    Allele of crb
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of crb
    characterization construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    Deletions and Duplications ( 17 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    dorsal mesothoracic disc & epithelial cell, with Scer\GAL4en-e16E
    photoreceptor & adherens junction, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
    zonula adherens & photoreceptor | somatic clone
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (41)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    6 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    No
     
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    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (39)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    5 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
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    Yes
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    Yes
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    Yes
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    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (33)
    4 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
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    Yes
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    Yes
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    No
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    No
    1 of 13
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    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
    3 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
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    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (39)
    8 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
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    Yes
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    1 of 15
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    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (34)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
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    Yes
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    Yes
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    Yes
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    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919006H )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150039 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00B9 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00AP )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G001C )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 6 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    inferred from mutant phenotype
    Interactions ( 6 )
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the SAC complex, a complex composed of crb, Patj and sdt (PubMed:11740560, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11076972). May interact with the par-6 complex, which is composed of par-6, baz and aPKC, via its interaction with Patj (PubMed:12900452, PubMed:10102271, PubMed:11076972). Interacts with other proteins with Patj and sdt via its short cytoplasmic tail (PubMed:11740560). Component of the CGX complex composed of crb, galla (galla-1 or galla-2) and Xpd (PubMed:25065591). Able to interact independently (via intracellular domain) with galla-1, galla-2 and Xpd (PubMed:25065591).
    (UniProt, P10040 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
    The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
    Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
    The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-84
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:24,295,078..24,314,541 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    95F10-95F11
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}crb07207&P{PZ}BRWD305842 and P{EP}CycB3EP3127
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    95F3-95F10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95F11-95F12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95F-95F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 95F3--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95F9-95F13
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95F-95F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    99F-99F
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (30)
    Genomic Clones (16)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (30)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: crb CG6383
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: crb l(3)S050920
      Source for merge of: crb l(3)j1B5
      Source for merge of: crb l(3)S058104
      Source for merge of: crb l(3)07207
      Source for merge of: crb far
      Additional comments
      Four more alleles discarded by Tubingen.
      Other Comments
      crb acts as a negative regulator of actomyosin dynamics during dorsal closure. Mutation of the crb FERM-domain binding motif affects elongation of the dorsal most epidermal cells, proper formation of the actomyosin cable at the leading edge and regulated constriction of amnioserosa cells.
      crb is required for cell polarity in the tubles only from the time when morphogenetic movements start.
      The crb 3' UTR is necessary and sufficient for it's apical localization in embryos.
      In vivo overexpression experiments reveal the kinase activity of aPKC on crb to be required for epithelial polarity.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      Overexpression of the JM region of the crb gene product recruits adherens junctions to ectopic sites of the photoreceptor cell membrane without causing loss of apicobasal polarity.
      crb is required to inhibit light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.
      crb is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis. crb is required to maintain zonula adherens integrity during the rapid apical membrane expansion that builds the rhabdomere. In addition, crb regulates stalk development by stabilizing the membrane-associated spectrin cytoskeleton.
      sdt is a partner of crb in the control of epithelial cell polarity in the developing embryo.
      sdt interacts with crb to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts.
      crb is required for the formation and maintenance of the follicular epithelium.
      Mutants exhibit cellular differentiation defects.
      Loss of cell polarity in the epidermal primordium of crb mutant embryos is associated with a failure to establish the zonulae adherentes. These junctions fail to develop when an altered polarity is induced by the overexpression of crb. crb and sdt have different functions during the formation of the zonula adherens.
      The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation. crb is required for germ cell viability or early oogenesis.
      crb and sdt are required for the third step in zonula adherens formation. The marginal zone of the apical membrane may contain a crb- and sdt-dependent retention mechanism for adherens junction material that facilitates zonula adherens formation.
      crb is part of the apical membrane and is concentrated in the immediate vicinity of the zonula adherens.
      The insertion of crb protein into the plasma memebrane is necessary and sufficient to confer apical character on a membrane domain. crb plays a key role in specifying the apical plasma membrane domain of ectodermal epithelial cells.
      Mutations in crb lead to widespread defects in the development of epithelial tissues followed by massive cell death during embryogenesis. Df(3L)W10 can block the massive cell death but the gross morphological defects are not rescued.
      crb and sdt encode critical components of a pathway that acts at the apical pole of epithelial cells to control their cytoarchitecture. Mosaic experiments suggest that sdt though not crb is required cell autonomously. Double mutant analysis suggests that sdt acts downstream of and is activated by crb.
      Cys poor regions of the proteins encoded by sli and ft are homologous with the laminin A-type modules of the crb protein.The laminin A-type modules of these proteins may participate in the interactions that control morphogenesis.
      Four Cys poor regions of crb are distantly related to domains present in the C terminal part of laminin A chains.
      The homology with the C terminal part of laminin A chains suggests that the Cys poor regions of crb may be directly involved in interactions organizing epithelia.
      Clonal analysis of crb indicates that crb is not cell autonomous in its expression, this suggests that the gene product may act as a diffusable factor and may serve as a signal in a cell-cell communication process.
      The crb gene encodes an integral membrane protein with 30 EGF-like repeats in the extracellular domain.
      crb may function to establish and/or maintain epithelia cell polarity.
      crb mutants display many small holes in the cuticle.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.