General Information
Symbol
Dmel\drd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
drop dead
Annotation Symbol
CG33968
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260006
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Drop dead is an integral membrane protein. It is required for female fertility and for proper function of the gut and respiratory tracheae. [Date last reviewed: 2016-12-15]
Also Known As
lwf, blt, beltless
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,125,753..15,137,311 [+]
Recombination map
1-49
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
-
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
drd: drop dead (J.C. Hall)
After normal development and normal behavior of young adults, flies begin to walk in uncoordinated manner and rapidly die (all dead by approximately ten days posteclosion); before death, there are gross holes in brain; mosaic experiment suggests primary defect is in brain. Second allele (drd2) causes similar effects with rapid death of population 9-11 days post eclosion plus reduced female fertility.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\drd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\drd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene merge based on EST/cDNA data (RE74651):: DATE:2005-04-13 13:40:31::TS:1113414031292
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0100009
3280
827
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0099994
93.6
827
8.74
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\drd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (6 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: heads and bodies assayed separately

organism

Comment: heads and bodies assayed separately

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\drd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of drd
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    --
      Yes
        0
        Yes
        Other relevant insertions
        Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
        For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
        Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of drd
        Allele of drd
        Mutagen
        Associated Transgenic Construct
        Stocks
        Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of drd
        Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
        Phenotypes
        For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
        Lethality
        Allele
        Sterility
        Allele
        Other Phenotypes
        Allele
        Phenotype manifest in
        Allele
        glial cell & adult brain
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
        Species\Gene Symbol
        Score
        Best Score
        Best Reverse Score
        Alignment
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        4 of 15
        Yes
        No
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
        5 of 13
        Yes
        No
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
        3 of 15
        Yes
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (44)
        5 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        5 of 15
        Yes
        Yes
        4 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        Yes
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        3 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        2 of 15
        No
        No
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        1 of 15
        No
        Yes
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No orthologs reported.
        Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903K8 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        AAA Syntenic Ortholog
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Drosophila melanogaster
        fruit fly
        Drosophila suzukii
        Spotted wing Drosophila
        Drosophila simulans
        Drosophila sechellia
        Drosophila erecta
        Drosophila yakuba
        Drosophila ananassae
        Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
        Drosophila persimilis
        Drosophila willistoni
        Drosophila virilis
        Drosophila mojavensis
        Drosophila grimshawi
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915031F )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Musca domestica
        House fly
        Glossina morsitans
        Tsetse fly
        Lucilia cuprina
        Australian sheep blowfly
        Mayetiola destructor
        Hessian fly
        Aedes aegypti
        Yellow fever mosquito
        Anopheles darlingi
        American malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Anopheles gambiae
        Malaria mosquito
        Culex quinquefasciatus
        Southern house mosquito
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04W6 )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Bombyx mori
        Silkmoth
        Danaus plexippus
        Monarch butterfly
        Apis florea
        Little honeybee
        Apis mellifera
        Western honey bee
        Bombus impatiens
        Common eastern bumble bee
        Bombus terrestris
        Buff-tailed bumblebee
        Linepithema humile
        Argentine ant
        Megachile rotundata
        Alfalfa leafcutting bee
        Nasonia vitripennis
        Parasitic wasp
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Dendroctonus ponderosae
        Mountain pine beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Tribolium castaneum
        Red flour beetle
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Pediculus humanus
        Human body louse
        Rhodnius prolixus
        Kissing bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Cimex lectularius
        Bed bug
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Acyrthosiphon pisum
        Pea aphid
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Zootermopsis nevadensis
        Nevada dampwood termite
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04SK )
        Organism
        Common Name
        Gene
        Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Ixodes scapularis
        Black-legged tick
        Stegodyphus mimosarum
        African social velvet spider
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Tetranychus urticae
        Two-spotted spider mite
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
        Human Disease Model Data
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
          Download
          Models ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Interactions ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Comments ( 0 )
           
          Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Homo sapiens (Human)
          Gene name
          Score
          OMIM
          OMIM Phenotype
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Interactions Browser
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          External Data
          Linkouts
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          Pathways
          Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
          External Data
          Linkouts
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          X
          Recombination map
          1-49
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          X:15,125,753..15,137,311 [+]
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          13A12-13B1
          Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}hiwEP1308 and P{EP}Ahcy13EP1007
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Location
          1-33--57
          Left of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (9)
          Genomic Clones (11)
           

          Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

          cDNA Clones (99)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequences
          BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            BDGP DGC clones
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
             
            monoclonal
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for identity of: BcDNA:GM06434 CG5652
            Source for identity of: beltless CG5652
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: lwf CG33968
            Source for merge of: drd beltless
            Source for merge of: CG32589 CG5652
            Additional comments
            Annotations CG32589 and CG5652 merged as CG33968 in release 4.3 of the genome annotation.
            Not allelic to any of six adult-lethal (adl) genes mapping between v and f.
            Other Comments
            Mutant flies show a reduction in the transfer of ingested food from the crop to the midgut and an increased rate of crop contraction compared to controls.
            Mutations in drd result in early adult lethality and neurodegeneration.
            Mutant drd flies store significantly more food in their crops and defecate less than wild-type flies.
            Identification: In an EMS screen for mutations that confer salt sensitivity in Drosophila.
            The lwf EMS line exhibits lethality within 5 days on food containing 0.4 M NaCl. The lwf EMS line has a normal body size and external morphology.
            Embryos in which beltless function has been reduced using RNA interference display a range of cuticular defects, ranging from partially differentiated cuticle to misdirected and partially formed denticle belts, and lack of denticle belts in abdominal segments A2-A4. The embryos fail to hatch.
            The ovaries of adult females in which beltless function has been reduced using RNA interference are smaller than normal 72 hours after treatment with dsRNA, and the connections between the ovarioles are disorganised and loose. These females lay significantly fewer eggs than controls.
            Approximately 65% of beltless RNAi embryos develop cuticular abnormalities, ranging from partially differentiated cuticle to misdirected and only partially-formed denticle belts.
            New annotation (CG32589) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
            In drd mutants the temporal pattern of expression of three different molecular biomarkers is accelerated.
            The expression pattern of drd suggests the gene function is required in specific glial cell types that play a role in the maintenance of brain integrity.
            Adult mutants exhibit severe behavioural defects and brain degeneration, these manifest a few days after emergence. Mosaic analysis reveals the drd gene product is non-cell autonomous. Defective glia in the adult brain may disrupt adult nervous system function, contributing to progressive brain degeneration and death. The wild type drd gene product may prevent brain degeneration by providing a necessary glial function.
            After normal development and normal behavior of young adults, flies begin to walk in uncoordinated manner and rapidly die (all dead by approximately ten days posteclosion); before death, there are gross holes in brain; mosaic experiment suggests primary defect is in brain. Second allele (drd2) causes similar effects with rapid death of population 9-11 days post-eclosion plus reduced female fertility.
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            The gene is named "beltless" based on the embryonic loss of function phenotype of missing denticle belts.
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 28 )
            Sequence Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
            Linkouts
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
            Project Type
            Title
            References (68)