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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\flr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
flare
Annotation Symbol
CG10724
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260049
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
flare (flr) encodes the Drosophila Actin Interacting protein 1. It functions with the product of tsr (cofillin) to promote F-actin disassembly. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Aip1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:13,412,843..13,416,453 [+]
Recombination map

3-40

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:13412843..13416453
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000458108
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000458108
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001068817
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000458108
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000458111
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000458108
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the WD repeat AIP1 family. (Q9VU68)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Induces disassembly of actin filaments in conjunction with ADF/cofilin family proteins. Essential for organismal and cell viability. Required for the development of normal wing cell planar polarity.
(UniProt, Q9VU68)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
flr: flare
Chaetae and trichomes in thorax and abdomen abnormally shaped. Chaetae have rudimentary sockets, and shaft is frequently crooked and branched. Trichomes transformed into multiple short outgrowths which appear as swellings on wing cells and as rosettes in abdominal cuticle cells. Homozygotes are zygotic lethals but cell viable; homozygous clones may have reduced survival in thorax but not in abdomen. Excellent marker for homozygous 3L clones.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\flr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075845
2275
608
FBtr0075846
2210
604
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075581
66.5
608
6.72
FBpp0075582
66.1
604
6.72
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\flr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\flr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of flr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of flr
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919042C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915015P )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02ZU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02LU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03SZ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-40

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:13,412,843..13,416,453 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    70A8-70B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0422004220&P{lacW}l(3)j10B6j10B6 and P{PZ}stv00543
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (24)
    Genomic Clones (13)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (88)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: flr CG10724

      Additional comments

      Alleles lethal in all pairwise combinations.

      Other Comments

      flr is required for F-actin disassembly in pupal epidermal cells. flr is also required for normal wing cell planar polarity.

      S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      The genotoxicity of six insecticides has been analysed using the wing spot test.

      The wing spot test has been used to assay the antigenotoxicity of a number of compounds.

      SMART is well suited for the determination of genotoxicity produced by in vivo nitrosation processes and for the study of their modulation by individual compounds or dietary complex mixtures.

      The genotoxic effect of the essential oils of O.vulgare, C.capitata and S.thymbra is tested using the SMART assay: the oils do not show any mutagenic or recombinagenic activity.

      The genotoxic effect DEHP is tested using the SMART assay, results reveal DEHP does not have a genotoxic effect.

      The genotoxic effect of 4 inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases has been studied using the wing spot assay.

      Ethanol reduces the mutagenic effect of γ-irradiation in SMART assay, mainly by decreasing the frequency of mitotic recombination.

      The genotoxic effect of integerrimine (ITR) are analysed using the wing spot test: ITR is genotoxic.

      Mutants do not exhibit defects in the denticle belt of hairs of the larvae.

      Vicinal chloroalcohols are investigated for genotoxicity in the wing spot test (SMART): tested compounds are non-genotoxic in this in vivo assay.

      Sodium azide is tested for somatic mutation and mitotic recombination induction in wing imaginal disc cells using the wing spot test. Sodium azide induces exclusively mitotic recombination in wing somatic cells after chronic exposure. This activity is reduced in the presence of high bioactivation capacity.

      The genotoxic effect PhIP is tested using the SMART assay, results reveal PhIP has a DNA-damaging activity.

      The mutagenic and/or carcinogenic activity of electromagnetic fields is estimated using the wing spot test in larvae, exposure causes a statistically significant enhancement of somatic recombination. Supplement of vitamin E suppresses this enhancement.

      Wing spots in the SMART reveal enzyme-sulfhydryl blocking agents, such as MMTS and DPDS, are effective antimutagens in vivo.

      The effect of chlorophyll on the genotoxic activity of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide has been studied using the wing spot test.

      The genotoxic effects of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) and acetone oxime (ACOX) are tested using the SMART test. The effect of Hsap\GST on the genotoxic effect is studied: flies carrying three or more copies of Hsap\GST are significantly more resistant to the genotoxic effect of ACOX.

      SMART is used to test the genotoxic effect of fullerene C-60: only at the highest possible fullerene concentration a slight genotoxic effect was observed in wing cells.

      Only the maximum possible content of fullerene C60 produces a slight genotoxic effect when using the SMART test.

      Assays of a series of compounds in the wing spot test indicates the single mwh spots appear most frequently, followed by less frequent twin spots and then the quite rare flr spots. Some compounds behave in this manner, others do not in that the frequency of single flr spots is equal to or exceeds that of twin spots.

      The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay four inhibitors of eukaryotic topoisomerases for genotoxic effects.

      The spectrum of genotoxic events detected by the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the wi eye spot test is different. The wi eye spot test appears not to detect mitotic recombination the way the wing spot test does.

      The genetic effects of exposure to a range of concentrations of alpha particles has been studied using the wing-spot test.

      Six alkylating agents have been ranked as follows according to their genotoxic potency in the wing spot test: methyl methanesulfonate > mitomycin C > N-dimethylnitrosamine > chlorambucil ~ monocrotaline > N-diethylnitrosamine.

      The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay for genotoxic effects of griseofulvin.

      The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay for genotoxicity of tetracycline hydrochloride.

      The genotoxicity of 6 phenazine and aminophenazine derivatives is assayed using the wing spot test in larvae, chemicals exhibit significant mutagenicity.

      The relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons has been determined for two different types of somatic mutations, the wing-spot test (using mwh and flr) and reversion of eye-colour (using w).

      The effects of 10 carcinogens on the wing spot test are evaluated.

      Three assays (z-w, wi and wing spot) are used to evaluate the genotoxic response of five chemicals classified as genotoxic non-carcinogens, chemicals significantly increase the frequency of mutant clones.

      The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to test for any genotoxic effects of tannic acid.

      The wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of larvae is used to evaluate the genotoxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three of their nitro derivatives, genotoxic activity can be detected in somatic cells.

      In young larvae only a few but very large spots are induced by application of a mutagen in the wing spot test. In older larvae the frequency is considerably increased but the sizes are smaller. Practically no twin spots (result of mitotic recombination) are found in young or in very old larvae. Results demonstrate the optimal age of the larvae for mutagen treatment is 72 hours.

      Wing spot test is used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of griseofulvin in somatic larval cells, griseofulvin is genotoxic in somatic cells.

      Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, is assayed in the wing spot test.

      Mitotic location: 49.

      Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), when used as a pretreatment, protects against mutation/recombination induced by γ rays and chromium (VI) oxide in larvae in the wing spot test.

      The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1.

      Wing spot test reveals two triazine herbicides, terbutryn and terbuthylazin, are genotoxic in the wing primordia.

      Wing spot test reveals the triazine herbicide, simazine, is genotoxic in the wing primordia.

      The attached X and mwh/flr spot test system were used to demonstrate that ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza have inhibitory effects on the in vivo mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) during spermatogenesis.

      The wing spot test has been used to demonstrate that the somatic mutation and recombination test can be used for the genotoxic activity of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

      The adenine derivatives, (R,S)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine, D-eritadenine and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, are potent inducers of both single spots and twin spots in a wing-spot assay.

      Wing spot tests rank the genotoxic effectiveness of a number of metal salts in the following order: CoCl2 > ZnCl2 > MoCl3 > (MnCl2, NiCl2).

      Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) is used to determine the relevance of the in vitro effects induced by benzophenone-3: benzophenone-3 is not genotoxic.

      Wing-spot assay is used to evaluate the quantitative relationship between BaP-DNA adduct formation, determined by 32P-postlabelling, and the induction of phenotypically mutant cells.

      Chloral hydrate is recombinogenic in the wing spot test.

      Arsenic acid has an inhibitory effect on the induction of wing spots by gamma irradiation or alkylating agents in a wing-spot assay.

      High temperatures cause a small number of mwh spots in the wing-spot assay and cold temperatures yield much greater number of single spots.

      The effect of chlorophyllin on the genotoxicity of chromium(VI) oxide in larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr is assayed using the wing spot somatic test.

      The wing spot test is used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the antitumour indenoisoquinoline analogues of nitidine chloride and fagaronine chloride in larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr, the analogues have a very weak genotoxic effect.

      The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of three day old larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr is used to study the mutagenic potential of three benzocphenanthridine alkaloids with antileukemic properties as compared with that of two structurally related aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons.

      Wing spot tests indicate that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is genotoxic in the primordial wing cells of Drosophila.

      Four antidepressants and one neuroleptic drug are tested for genotoxicity using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of three day old larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr, the compounds are genotoxic.

      The genotoxicity of mitoxantrone has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The genotoxicity of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene has been analysed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      Chromium(VI) oxide is highly genotoxic in the mwh-flr wing spot assay.

      The genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (Durmet) has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The genotoxicity of tritiated water has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The genotoxicity of furfural has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The genotoxicity of four herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, maleic hydrazide and paraquat) has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The mwh-flr wing spot test has been used to assay the genotoxicity of the insecticide Parryfos (monocrotophos).

      The genotoxicity of irradiated cocoa has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      Somatic mutation in hybrid dysgenic flies has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The genotoxicity of a series of N-nitrosamines has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

      The mutagenicity of tepezcohuite has been assayed using the wing spot test.

      The wing spot test has been used to assay the mutagenic activity of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

      Genotoxicity of acrolein is investigated using SMART, SCLT (sex chromosome loss test) and SLRLT (sex linked recessive lethal test). Acrolein is mutagenic in SLRLT when injected but not fed, SCLT does not reveal a clastogenic effect with acrolein and acrolein has a genotoxic effect in SMART.

      The mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of 3-beta-hydroxy-13-alpha-amino-13,17-seco-5-alpha-androstan-17-oic-13,17-lactam-p-bis-(2-chloroethyl) aminophenoxyacetate (NSC 294859) has been assayed using a wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART).

      Wing spot test (SMART) and sex-linked recessive lethal test (SLRLT) are used to test the mutagenicity of sumithion, a broad spectrum insecticide - compound is mutagenic in wing primordial cells and induces recombination at high doses.

      Acrylamide is both mutagenic and recombinogenic in wing disc cells and induces sex-linked recessive lethals.

      Genotoxicity of a chelating agent, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), is investigated using SMART. NTA is active in inducing mitotic recombination and possible aneuploidy in somatic cells.

      SMART in wing cells is used to test genotoxicity of 5 tricyclic antidepressants, results implicate the nitrogen atom at position 5 in the 7-membered ring of the tricyclic molecule as being responsible for the genotoxic property of the compounds.

      The effects of chemicals classified as non-carcinogens or unclassified, but known to have given one or more positive results, are tested using SMART. Also the sensitivity of SMART compared to SLRLT is tested.

      Genotoxicity of ethyl carbamate is tested using SMART: ethyl carbamate induces, in a dose-dependent manner, single as well as twin spots, indicating a recombinogenic activity.

      The effects of repair deficiency are studied by comparing the frequency of somatic mutation and mitotic recombination in repair proficient female progeny with that in excision repair defective male progeny. Nine chemical mutagens with various modes of action are tested in this way.

      The genetic toxicity of six carcinogens and six non-carcinogens are tested using SMART: carcinogens are highly toxic and the non-carcinogens are non-genotoxic.

      The genotoxic activity of a photochemical reaction mixture of 1,3-butadiene and nitrogen dioxide has been assayed using the wing spot test.

      SMART is used to assay the effects of NTA and EDTA in germ and somatic cell lines.

      Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0000676
      • FBgn0036357
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (220)