Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\spdo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sanpodo
Annotation Symbol
CG31020
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260440
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
sanpodo (spdo) encodes a four-pass transmembrane domain containing protein that interacts with both the product of numb and the Notch signaling pathway to enable precursor cells to divide asymmetrically to produce daughter cells of distinct fates. Its roles include cell fate specification in the nervous system, mesoderm, and endoderm. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-100
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:30476684..30478849
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (15 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:numb; FB:FBgn0002973
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Psn; FB:FBgn0284421
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with cytoplasmic vesicle
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in early endosome
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    sanpodo (spdo) encodes a four-pass transmembrane domain containing protein that interacts with both the product of numb and the Notch signaling pathway to enable precursor cells to divide asymmetrically to produce daughter cells of distinct fates. Its roles include cell fate specification in the nervous system, mesoderm, and endoderm. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
    Pathway (FlyBase)
    Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
    The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
    Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
    The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    encodes a four-pass transmembrane protein that localizes to the cell membrane - specifies Notch-dependent fate - Notch and Numb physically associate with Sanpodo - enables precursor cells to divide asymmetrically to produce daughter cells of distinct fates - involved in cell fate specification in the nervous system, mesoderm, and endoderm

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\spdo for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.44

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0085651
    2087
    565
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0085013
    63.8
    565
    8.71
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spdo using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

    spdo protein is expressed in all embryonic cells known to undergo asymmetric divisions.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    colocalizes_with cytoplasmic vesicle
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in cytosol
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in early endosome
    inferred from direct assay
    colocalizes_with plasma membrane
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\spdo in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 29 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of spdo
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of spdo
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 5 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    abdominal 1 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 2 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 3 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 4 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 5 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 6 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    abdominal 7 basiconical sensillum dbd & embryonic glial cell
    embryonic peripheral nervous system & glial cell
    macrochaeta & mesothoracic tergum | somatic clone
    peripheral nervous system precursor cluster & neuron | supernumerary
    thecogen cell & peripheral nervous system
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919080J )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505QT )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W05OJ )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Positive Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
      The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Positive regulators of the pathway enhance the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
      Negative Regulators of Notch Signaling Pathway -
      The Notch receptor signaling pathway is activated by the binding of the transmembrane receptor Notch (N) to transmembrane ligands, Dl or Ser, presented on adjacent cells. This results in the proteolytic cleavage of N, releasing the intracellular domain (NICD). NICD translocates into the nucleus, interacting with Su(H) and mam to form a transcription complex, which up-regulates transcription of Notch-responsive genes. Negative regulators of the pathway down-regulate the signal from the sending cell or the response in the receiving cell. (Adapted from FBrf0225731 and FBrf0192604).
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-100
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      99F6-99F6
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ncd05884 and P{lacW}l(3)s2500s2500
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      99F1-100B5
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (7)
      Genomic Clones (14)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (6)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: spdo CG31020

      Source for merge of: CG31020 BcDNA:RE23355

      Additional comments

      The "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the CG31020 annotation and not to "tmod" as previously reported in FBrf0102830; molecular lesions in the CG31020 annotation have been identified in 12 spdo alleles, RNAi against CG31020 results in a central nervous system (CNS) phenotype essentially identical to that of spdo mutants and expression of CG31020 throughout the CNS of spdo mutant embryos results in complete to near-complete rescue of the spdo CNS phenotype.

      FlyBase curator comment: FBrf0102830 states that the "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the "tmod, tropomodulin" gene. However, FBrf0162056 shows that this was an error and the spdo complementation group actually corresponds to the CG31020 annotation.

      The "spdo" complementation group corresponds to the CG31020 annotation and not to the CG1539 annotation. It was reported in FBrf0102830 that "spdo" corresponds to the "tmod, tropomodulin" gene (the CG1539 annotation). However, this was subsequently shown to be an error. FBrf0162056 shows that the "spdo" complementation group corresponds instead to the CG31020 annotation.

      Source for merge of CG31020 BcDNA:RE23355 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

      Other Comments

      New annotation (CG31020) in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      numb and spdo mediate the asymmetric divisions in the developing heart which result in the production of an odd-expressing pericardial cell and a cardioblast.

      Two EMS induced alleles have been identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

      Mutations in spdo affect the asymmetric cell division of the embryonic PNS SOPIIb. Rather than a neuron and a glial cell, two neurons are produced. spdo is also required in several other PNS lineages. spdo is epistatic to numb.

      spdo and N act in opposition to numb to distinguish sibling neuron fates in the CNS.

      The numb mutant phenotype is extremely sensitive to the dosage of spdo.

      sanpodo is Korean for mountain grape.

      spdo is required to define glial versus neuronal cell identity.

      Mutation in spdo affects the neuronal lineage, causes transformation of support cells into neurons.

      "sanpodo" is Korean for mountain grapes.

      spdo is required for PNS development in the embryo.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 29 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010731
      • FBgn0039785
      • FBgn0039786
      • FBgn0051020
      • FBgn0064900
      • FBgn0011716
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (142)