General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Antp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Antennapedia
Annotation Symbol
CG1028
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260642
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Antennapedia (Antp) is the distal-most member of the Antennapedia complex; one of two Hox gene complexes. Antp is a sequence-specific homeodomain transcription factor, which is part of a developmental regulatory system that specifies segmental identity in the pro- and mesothorax. In adults loss of function is associated with a transformation of leg into antenna while ectopic expression in the head is associated with antenna to leg and eye to wing transformations. [Date last reviewed: 2016-12-15]
Also Known As
ANT-C, Hu, DmAntp, Scx, DMANTPE1
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:6,896,253..6,999,228 [-]
Recombination map
3-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Antp homeobox family. (P02833)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
ANTENNAPEDIA COMPLEX -
The Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) is one of two Hox gene complexes. Hox genes encode homeodomain transcription factors. ANT-C controls the identity of segments that contribute to the head and the anterior thorax. ANT-C homeotic genes show colinearity in their expression patterns with the exception of pb. (Adapted from FBrf0190304).
HOX-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
HOX-like (HOXL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They encompass transcription factors encoded by the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and the Bithorax gene complexes and genes closely related in sequence. HOXL transcription factors are major regulators of animal development. (Adapted from FBrf0232555).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that regulates segmental identity in the mesothorax. Provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis.
(UniProt, P02833)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Antp: Antennapedia
thumb
AntpLC: Antennapedia of Le Calvez
From Le Calvez, 1948, Bull. Biol. France Belg. 82: 97-113.
Null loss-of-function alleles result in embryonic lethality. Animals succumb at the end of embryogenesis and show homeotic transformations in the larval cuticle of the first, second, and third thoracic segments. Specifically the cuticle derived from parasegments 4 and 5 are transformed to a more anterior identity such that the posterior of the first thorax produces fragments of mouth hook material on its dorsal surface presumably owing to a new posterior labial identity, whereas the anterior of the second thorax resembles the first thorax. The anterior of the third thoracic segment is weakly transformed toward a T1-like identity. The posterior of T2 is presumably T1 like as there are no gnathal structures seen in this compartment. There are also partial loss-of-function mutations which allow survival into the larval, pupal, and adult stages. Those that allow adult survival produce animals in which the anterior of the dorsal mesothorax shows a transformation to prothorax. There are no other apparent defects associated with these lesions. Those "leaky" mutants which die in the pupal and larval stages show similar parasegmental transformations as the null alleles, except that only the parasegment 4 to 3 homeosis is generally apparent. Animals which survive to the pupal stage fail to evert their anterior spiracles resulting in a blunt appearance of the anterior pupa. This same phenotype is seen in genotypes which survive to the adult stage. These partial mutants in many cases are associated with chromosome rearrangements notably deletions which approach the locus from its distal end. Moreover these mutations have been shown to complement fully other seemingly null mutations. Subsequent molecular analyses have shown that these results are accounted for by the presence of two promotors, one, P1, distal to the other, P2. The partial mutants affect the ability of the P1 promotor to initiate transcription, while the complementing lesions inactivate P2. Null mutants affect the transcription unit and protein encoding portion of the gene which is common to both promotors (see below). X-ray induced somatic clones of Antp- cells demonstrate that the locus is required in the adult for the proper development of the dorsal pro and mesothorax, and legs. The former is reduced in size presumably reflecting an anteriorward transformation while the latter are transformed to antennae. Thus Antp+ function is required in the embryo and adult in parasegments 4 and 5 to prevent more anterior segmental identities, specifically those normally found in the anterior thorax and head. The Antp locus was initially recognized by virtue of several striking dominant gain-of-function alleles. Thirteen of these transform the antenna of the adult into a mesothoracic leg (Antp49, AntpB, AntpYu, AntpPw, AntpLC, AntpR, AntpWu, Antp50, AntpRM, Antp73b, AntpCB, Antp72j, and AntpNs). Three of these also have effects on the orbit of the eye and the vibrissal region of the ventral head (AntpRM, Antp72j, and AntpNs). There are also two dominant alleles (AntpCtx and AntpW) which transform portions of the head capsule (dorsal and posterior) and the eye to a dorsal mesothoracic identity. In some cases this includes the production of wing tissue in the eye. Finally, a unique dominant AntpHu produces bristles on the normally bald propleurae just ventral to the mesothoracic spiricle. This latter phenotype has been interpreted as the production of sternopleural bristles on the propleurae, and thus a T1 to T2 transformation. With the exception of AntpNs and Antp72j all these dominant lesions are associated with recessive lethality and gross chromosome rearrangements. All the breakpoints fall in the interval between the distal and proximal promotors. The dominant gain-of-function phenotype results from the misregulation of the P2 promotor by position affect or by the production of novel transcripts initiated in the newly juxtaposed sequences and spliced to the downstream Antp coding sequences. Both events result in the ectopic accumulation of the Antp protein product in the eye-antennal disc where the normal head repressive function of the gene causes the observed alteration. The recessive lethality associated with these lesions falls into the partially deficient category mentioned above. That is, these lesions show complementation with the P2 specific (Antp1 and Antp23) mutations and in general show only strong parasegment 4 -> parasegment 3 transformations. However, there is a gradient of this affect among the breakpoints. Those closest to P1 and furthest from P2 are the weakest, whereas those close to P2 show the strongest phenotype and earlier lethal phase. This same result is obtained with breakpoint mutations in the P2-to-P1 interval which are not associated with a dominant phenotype. Therefore this interval likely contains sequences necessary for the proper regulation of the P2 promoter. Three of the dominant gain-of-function lesions (AntpHu, Antp73b, and AntpNs) have been reverted. The revertants are either complete nulls, thus obviating the potential for ectopic expression, or are partial mutants; the latter mutants likely remove the potential for ectopic expression by altering the juxtaposed sequences required for abnormal P2 activity. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining have been used to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of Antp expression. Both the protein and RNA are strongly accumulated in the ventral nerve cord and more weakly in the epidermis and mesoderm of the embryo. Protein and RNA are first detected during cellular blastoderm in a band of cells in the parasegment 4-6 anlagen. This initial spatial pattern is further elaborated at full germ-band extension. In the ectoderm Antp products are found starting in the region of the first thoracic segment (parasegments 3 and 4) and extending posteriorly to the level of the seventh abdominal segment. In the mesoderm, they are found in parasegments 4-6. During germ band shortening the gene products are accumulated in the CNS from parasegment 4 (posterior T1) through to the posterior end of the ventral nerve cord. In the integument transcripts and protein are mainly restricted to the parasegments 4-5 interval although some weak expression can be seen in parasegments 3. As embryogenesis proceeds, the posterior CNS expression diminishes but is still detectable at the end of embryogenesis. The major accumulation in the CNS at this time is in the neuromeres of parasegments 4 and 5. The mesodermal expression is found in the anterior midgut; quenching of Antp expression is found in the posterior portion of the anterior midgut and has been shown to be dependent on the expression of Ubx. In later stages Antp protein can be detected in the leg, dorsal prothoracic, and wing discs.
Apx: Antennapedex (R.E. Denell)
Males and heterozygous females show variable expression from small additional segment on the third antennal segment to a nearly complete leg including femur, tibia, and tarsus. Arista usually present. Homozygous females lethal but X0 males survive. Crosses involving either Apx males or females produce many inviable embryos.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
11
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Antp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Antp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Evidence for internal alternative splicing is from FBrf0047943 and FBrf0048668.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081648
4890
374
FBtr0081650
4652
365
FBtr0081653
4863
365
FBtr0081649
4640
361
FBtr0081646
4111
297
FBtr0081654
3279
378
FBtr0081655
3490
378
FBtr0081656
4851
361
FBtr0081652
4902
378
FBtr0081647
4691
378
FBtr0081651
4679
374
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.6 (unknown)
5.0, 3.5 (northern blot)
4.9, 4.7, 3.5, 3.3, 1.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089241
42.3
374
8.46
FBpp0089243
41.4
365
9.20
FBpp0089244
41.4
365
9.20
FBpp0089242
41.0
361
9.17
FBpp0081160
32.8
297
6.97
FBpp0089245
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089246
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089247
41.0
361
9.17
FBpp0081162
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0081161
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089086
42.3
374
8.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

378 aa isoforms: Antp-PI, Antp-PJ, Antp-PL, Antp-PM
374 aa isoforms: Antp-PD, Antp-PN
361 aa isoforms: Antp-PG, Antp-PK
365 aa isoforms: Antp-PE, Antp-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
378, 374, 365, 361 (aa)
378 (aa); 43 (kD predicted)
Comments
The secondary structure of an N-terminally elongated Antp protein fragment, including both the homeodomain and the YPWM motif, from amino acids -14 to +67 was determined by NMR in solution (this study). Results strongly support the conclusion that the homeodomain is connected through a flexible linker to the main body in the Antp protein and that the minor groove contacts by residues 1-6 are intrinsic to the DNA binding interactions of the Antp protein (this study). The stability and specificity of the DNA binding previously observed for the shorter Antp homeodomain polypeptide is preserved for the elongated polypeptide.
Sequences of the mammalian thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTf-1) and Antp homeodomains were exchanged to identify regions responsible for DNA binding specificity. Mutations that make the TTf-1 recognition helix identical to that of Antp have no effect on binding specificity. Sequences outside of the recognition helix are shown to play a role in determining binding specificity.
The 1:1 complex of the mutant AntpC39S homeodomain with a 14bp DNA fragment corresponding to the BS2 binding site was studied by NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution. The AntpC39S protein and the DNA were found to have similar conformations in the free form and in the complex. In the complex, intermolecular 1H-1H Overhauser effects (NOE) are involved in protein-DNA binding.
NMR spectroscopy in solution was used to determine the structure of the Antp homeodomain. It includes 3 well defined helices (residues 10-21, 28-38, and 42-52) and a more flexible fourth helix (53-59). Residues 30-50 form a helix-turn-helx motif like those in various prokaryotic repressors. The fourth helix is unique to the Antp homeodomain.
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Antp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002902589
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Transcripts lacking exon 6 are present at low levels during embryogenesis and become more abundant at later stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Protein is detected in the anterior embryonic dorsal vessel. The protein is strongly expressed in four consecutive pairs of cardioblasts corresponding to tin expressing cardioblasts in abdominal segment A1 and the boundary between A1 and A2. There is also weaker expression in tin positive cardioblasts in A2 and thoracic segment 3.
The level of Antp protein (expressed from the + chromosome) is reduced in imaginal discs of Df(3R)SCB-XL2/+ third instar larvae.
Antp protein is expressed in all thoracic imaginal discs in distinct patterns. No significant staining is seen in the eye-antennal disc.
Mutants in the shv region of dpp cause a posterior shift of both the Antp protein expression domain and the first midgut constriction. Furthermore, the Antp domain includes only the anterior portion of the first midgut constriction and no longer extends on either side.
Antp protein is first detected in embryonic stage 13 in the visceral mesoderm. It is expressed in a domain that is 8 nuclei long and is located posterior to and separated from the Scr domain. By stage 14, the two lateral patches expressing Antp protein split. In stage 16, Antp protein expression is seen in the anterior constriction. Later in stage 16, the patches spread out along the anterior/posterior body axis while the midgut constrictions tilt. Finally, during stage 17, the Antp protein-expressing nuclei form four one-nucleus-wide rows.
Antp protein is first detected prior to the germ band retraction stage in the visceral mesoderm of the midgut and the ectoderm of parasegments 5-6.
The Antp protein domain remains unchanged in homozygous ftz mutant embryos. Embryos homozygous for eve3 showed no Antp staining but there is some staining in embryos homozygous for eve4. Normal homeotic gene function is seen in embryos homozygous for en<up>IO34, en54, en55, wgl-17, opa1, h41, odd5, prd4 and runB102. No Antp gene expression is seen in ftz,prd or opa,prd double mutant embryos and there is normal staining in odd,eve double mutant embryos. The Antp protein domain is normal in hb mutants, extended in width in kni mutants and lacking in KrB206 mutants.
Antp protein is first detected in germ band extended embryos in the presumptive thoracic region. The region extends from the posterior compartment of the labial segment to the anterior compartment of A1. The heaviest staining is in parasegment 4. As the germ band shortens, Antp protein is observed in the ectoderm of posterior T1 and in T2 and T3. As the germ band shortens further, expression diminishes in posterior T3 and appears in the ventral nervous system. With germ band shortening, expression in the ectoderm continues to decrease. Antp protein first appears in the ventral nervous system in 10 pairs of patches in the neurogenic region. Antp protein is present in the ventral nervous system from the posterior part of T1 to the anterior part of A7. At early stages, protein levels are uniform between the thoracic and abdominal segments. As development proceeds protein levels increase in posterior T1, anterior T2 and anterior T3 and diminish in the abdominal segments. Antp protein is also present in some cells of the PNS during germ band retraction. In the thorax, areas of strong Antp protein do not overlap areas of strong Ubx protein expression.
Antp protein is first detected at the onset of germ band retraction. It is limited to the thoracic segments in the epidermis but it is found in all neuromeres in the head, thorax and abdomen. At about 10hr of development, Antp protein levels increase in all neuromeres. This is followed by a rapid disappearance of protein from the neuromeres of the head and abdominal segments. Protein disappears completely from A8 and A9. As a consequence, Antp protein mainly accumulates in the ventral nervous system from posterior T1 to anterior T3 with a gap in posterior T2. Antp protein is also observed in imaginal discs. It is present in the posterior compartment of the 1st leg disc and the anterior compartments of the second and third leg discs. It is expressed most strongly in the proximal regions that will give rise to thoracic structures but is also expressed weakly in a part of the second leg disc that gives rise to the leg. Antp protein is observed in the part of the wing disc that will give rise to thoracic structures of the prescutum.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Antp-lacZ.2d9}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-Antp.P1.A}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}Antp-10
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Antp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 106 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of Antp
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    miscellaneous insertions
    Name
    Expression Data
    Transgenic Constructs ( 69 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Antp
    Allele of Antp
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Antp
    GAL4 construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    vital-reporter construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    UAS construct
    Name
    Expression Data
    Deletions and Duplications ( 72 )
    Disrupted in
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    external sensory organ & thorax
    macrochaeta & head
    macrochaeta & postpronotum
    mesothoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    metathoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    prothoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    scutum & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    somatic muscle & mesothoracic segment
    somatic muscle & mesothoracic segment, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
    somatic muscle & metathoracic segment
    wing & macrochaeta | somatic clone
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (38)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    8 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
     
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
     
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (37)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    9 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
    5 of 15
    No
    No
     
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
     
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
     
    2 of 15
    No
    No
     
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
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    No
    No
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    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (36)
    7 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 13
    No
    No
    5 of 13
    No
    No
    4 of 13
    No
    Yes
    3 of 13
    No
    Yes
    3 of 13
    No
    No
    3 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
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    No
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    No
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    No
    No
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    No
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    No
    No
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    No
    No
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    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (31)
    4 of 12
    Yes
    No
    4 of 12
    Yes
    No
    4 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 12
    No
    Yes
    3 of 12
    No
    Yes
    3 of 12
    No
    Yes
    2 of 12
    No
    Yes
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    No
    2 of 12
    No
    Yes
    2 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (45)
    8 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (12)
    6 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
     
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
    1 of 9
    Yes
    No
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
    3 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CSF )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AOV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0C7D )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07SH )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G09XD )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
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