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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Antp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Antennapedia
Annotation Symbol
CG1028
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260642
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Antennapedia (Antp) is the distal-most member of the Antennapedia complex; one of two Hox gene complexes. Antp encodes a sequence-specific homeodomain transcription factor, which is part of a developmental regulatory system that specifies segmental identity in the pro- and mesothorax. In adults Antp loss of function is associated with a transformation of leg into antenna while ectopic expression in the head is associated with antenna to leg and eye to wing transformations. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
ANT-C, Hu, DmAntp, Scx, DMANTPE1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:6,896,253..6,999,228 [-]
Recombination map
3-48
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Antp homeobox family. (P02833)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
ANTENNAPEDIA COMPLEX -
The Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) is one of two Hox gene complexes. Hox genes encode homeodomain transcription factors. ANT-C controls the identity of segments that contribute to the head and the anterior thorax. ANT-C homeotic genes show colinearity in their expression patterns with the exception of pb. (Adapted from FBrf0190304).
HOX-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
HOX-like (HOXL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They encompass transcription factors encoded by the Hox genes of the Antennapedia and the Bithorax gene complexes and genes closely related in sequence. HOXL transcription factors are major regulators of animal development. (Adapted from FBrf0232555).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that regulates segmental identity in the mesothorax. Provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis.
(UniProt, P02833)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Antp: Antennapedia
thumb
AntpLC: Antennapedia of Le Calvez
From Le Calvez, 1948, Bull. Biol. France Belg. 82: 97-113.
Null loss-of-function alleles result in embryonic lethality. Animals succumb at the end of embryogenesis and show homeotic transformations in the larval cuticle of the first, second, and third thoracic segments. Specifically the cuticle derived from parasegments 4 and 5 are transformed to a more anterior identity such that the posterior of the first thorax produces fragments of mouth hook material on its dorsal surface presumably owing to a new posterior labial identity, whereas the anterior of the second thorax resembles the first thorax. The anterior of the third thoracic segment is weakly transformed toward a T1-like identity. The posterior of T2 is presumably T1 like as there are no gnathal structures seen in this compartment. There are also partial loss-of-function mutations which allow survival into the larval, pupal, and adult stages. Those that allow adult survival produce animals in which the anterior of the dorsal mesothorax shows a transformation to prothorax. There are no other apparent defects associated with these lesions. Those "leaky" mutants which die in the pupal and larval stages show similar parasegmental transformations as the null alleles, except that only the parasegment 4 to 3 homeosis is generally apparent. Animals which survive to the pupal stage fail to evert their anterior spiracles resulting in a blunt appearance of the anterior pupa. This same phenotype is seen in genotypes which survive to the adult stage. These partial mutants in many cases are associated with chromosome rearrangements notably deletions which approach the locus from its distal end. Moreover these mutations have been shown to complement fully other seemingly null mutations. Subsequent molecular analyses have shown that these results are accounted for by the presence of two promotors, one, P1, distal to the other, P2. The partial mutants affect the ability of the P1 promotor to initiate transcription, while the complementing lesions inactivate P2. Null mutants affect the transcription unit and protein encoding portion of the gene which is common to both promotors (see below). X-ray induced somatic clones of Antp- cells demonstrate that the locus is required in the adult for the proper development of the dorsal pro and mesothorax, and legs. The former is reduced in size presumably reflecting an anteriorward transformation while the latter are transformed to antennae. Thus Antp+ function is required in the embryo and adult in parasegments 4 and 5 to prevent more anterior segmental identities, specifically those normally found in the anterior thorax and head. The Antp locus was initially recognized by virtue of several striking dominant gain-of-function alleles. Thirteen of these transform the antenna of the adult into a mesothoracic leg (Antp49, AntpB, AntpYu, AntpPw, AntpLC, AntpR, AntpWu, Antp50, AntpRM, Antp73b, AntpCB, Antp72j, and AntpNs). Three of these also have effects on the orbit of the eye and the vibrissal region of the ventral head (AntpRM, Antp72j, and AntpNs). There are also two dominant alleles (AntpCtx and AntpW) which transform portions of the head capsule (dorsal and posterior) and the eye to a dorsal mesothoracic identity. In some cases this includes the production of wing tissue in the eye. Finally, a unique dominant AntpHu produces bristles on the normally bald propleurae just ventral to the mesothoracic spiricle. This latter phenotype has been interpreted as the production of sternopleural bristles on the propleurae, and thus a T1 to T2 transformation. With the exception of AntpNs and Antp72j all these dominant lesions are associated with recessive lethality and gross chromosome rearrangements. All the breakpoints fall in the interval between the distal and proximal promotors. The dominant gain-of-function phenotype results from the misregulation of the P2 promotor by position affect or by the production of novel transcripts initiated in the newly juxtaposed sequences and spliced to the downstream Antp coding sequences. Both events result in the ectopic accumulation of the Antp protein product in the eye-antennal disc where the normal head repressive function of the gene causes the observed alteration. The recessive lethality associated with these lesions falls into the partially deficient category mentioned above. That is, these lesions show complementation with the P2 specific (Antp1 and Antp23) mutations and in general show only strong parasegment 4 -> parasegment 3 transformations. However, there is a gradient of this affect among the breakpoints. Those closest to P1 and furthest from P2 are the weakest, whereas those close to P2 show the strongest phenotype and earlier lethal phase. This same result is obtained with breakpoint mutations in the P2-to-P1 interval which are not associated with a dominant phenotype. Therefore this interval likely contains sequences necessary for the proper regulation of the P2 promoter. Three of the dominant gain-of-function lesions (AntpHu, Antp73b, and AntpNs) have been reverted. The revertants are either complete nulls, thus obviating the potential for ectopic expression, or are partial mutants; the latter mutants likely remove the potential for ectopic expression by altering the juxtaposed sequences required for abnormal P2 activity. Both in situ hybridization and immunostaining have been used to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of Antp expression. Both the protein and RNA are strongly accumulated in the ventral nerve cord and more weakly in the epidermis and mesoderm of the embryo. Protein and RNA are first detected during cellular blastoderm in a band of cells in the parasegment 4-6 anlagen. This initial spatial pattern is further elaborated at full germ-band extension. In the ectoderm Antp products are found starting in the region of the first thoracic segment (parasegments 3 and 4) and extending posteriorly to the level of the seventh abdominal segment. In the mesoderm, they are found in parasegments 4-6. During germ band shortening the gene products are accumulated in the CNS from parasegment 4 (posterior T1) through to the posterior end of the ventral nerve cord. In the integument transcripts and protein are mainly restricted to the parasegments 4-5 interval although some weak expression can be seen in parasegments 3. As embryogenesis proceeds, the posterior CNS expression diminishes but is still detectable at the end of embryogenesis. The major accumulation in the CNS at this time is in the neuromeres of parasegments 4 and 5. The mesodermal expression is found in the anterior midgut; quenching of Antp expression is found in the posterior portion of the anterior midgut and has been shown to be dependent on the expression of Ubx. In later stages Antp protein can be detected in the leg, dorsal prothoracic, and wing discs.
Apx: Antennapedex (R.E. Denell)
Males and heterozygous females show variable expression from small additional segment on the third antennal segment to a nearly complete leg including femur, tibia, and tarsus. Arista usually present. Homozygous females lethal but X0 males survive. Crosses involving either Apx males or females produce many inviable embryos.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
11
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Antp or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Antp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Evidence for internal alternative splicing is from FBrf0047943 and FBrf0048668.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081648
4890
374
FBtr0081650
4652
365
FBtr0081653
4863
365
FBtr0081649
4640
361
FBtr0081646
4111
297
FBtr0081654
3279
378
FBtr0081655
3490
378
FBtr0081656
4851
361
FBtr0081652
4902
378
FBtr0081647
4691
378
FBtr0081651
4679
374
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
3.6 (unknown)
5.0, 3.5 (northern blot)
4.9, 4.7, 3.5, 3.3, 1.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089241
42.3
374
8.46
FBpp0089243
41.4
365
9.20
FBpp0089244
41.4
365
9.20
FBpp0089242
41.0
361
9.17
FBpp0081160
32.8
297
6.97
FBpp0089245
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089246
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089247
41.0
361
9.17
FBpp0081162
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0081161
42.8
378
8.58
FBpp0089086
42.3
374
8.46
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

378 aa isoforms: Antp-PI, Antp-PJ, Antp-PL, Antp-PM
374 aa isoforms: Antp-PD, Antp-PN
361 aa isoforms: Antp-PG, Antp-PK
365 aa isoforms: Antp-PE, Antp-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
378, 374, 365, 361 (aa)
378 (aa); 43 (kD predicted)
Comments
The secondary structure of an N-terminally elongated Antp protein fragment, including both the homeodomain and the YPWM motif, from amino acids -14 to +67 was determined by NMR in solution (this study). Results strongly support the conclusion that the homeodomain is connected through a flexible linker to the main body in the Antp protein and that the minor groove contacts by residues 1-6 are intrinsic to the DNA binding interactions of the Antp protein (this study). The stability and specificity of the DNA binding previously observed for the shorter Antp homeodomain polypeptide is preserved for the elongated polypeptide.
Sequences of the mammalian thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTf-1) and Antp homeodomains were exchanged to identify regions responsible for DNA binding specificity. Mutations that make the TTf-1 recognition helix identical to that of Antp have no effect on binding specificity. Sequences outside of the recognition helix are shown to play a role in determining binding specificity.
The 1:1 complex of the mutant AntpC39S homeodomain with a 14bp DNA fragment corresponding to the BS2 binding site was studied by NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution. The AntpC39S protein and the DNA were found to have similar conformations in the free form and in the complex. In the complex, intermolecular 1H-1H Overhauser effects (NOE) are involved in protein-DNA binding.
NMR spectroscopy in solution was used to determine the structure of the Antp homeodomain. It includes 3 well defined helices (residues 10-21, 28-38, and 42-52) and a more flexible fourth helix (53-59). Residues 30-50 form a helix-turn-helx motif like those in various prokaryotic repressors. The fourth helix is unique to the Antp homeodomain.
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Antp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (19 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (13 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002902589
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002388214
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
dorsal ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Transcripts lacking exon 6 are present at low levels during embryogenesis and become more abundant at later stages.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Antp is expressed in a gradient in the ventral nerve cord in the NB5-6 lineage, high anteriorly and low posteriorly, with the anterior limit at segment T1. In both NB5-6A and NB5-6T expression begins at embryonic stage 12 and is maintained in all cells born after this stage.
Protein is detected in the anterior embryonic dorsal vessel. The protein is strongly expressed in four consecutive pairs of cardioblasts corresponding to tin expressing cardioblasts in abdominal segment A1 and the boundary between A1 and A2. There is also weaker expression in tin positive cardioblasts in A2 and thoracic segment 3.
The level of Antp protein (expressed from the + chromosome) is reduced in imaginal discs of Df(3R)SCB-XL2/+ third instar larvae.
Antp protein is expressed in all thoracic imaginal discs in distinct patterns. No significant staining is seen in the eye-antennal disc.
Mutants in the shv region of dpp cause a posterior shift of both the Antp protein expression domain and the first midgut constriction. Furthermore, the Antp domain includes only the anterior portion of the first midgut constriction and no longer extends on either side.
Antp protein is first detected in embryonic stage 13 in the visceral mesoderm. It is expressed in a domain that is 8 nuclei long and is located posterior to and separated from the Scr domain. By stage 14, the two lateral patches expressing Antp protein split. In stage 16, Antp protein expression is seen in the anterior constriction. Later in stage 16, the patches spread out along the anterior/posterior body axis while the midgut constrictions tilt. Finally, during stage 17, the Antp protein-expressing nuclei form four one-nucleus-wide rows.
Antp protein is first detected prior to the germ band retraction stage in the visceral mesoderm of the midgut and the ectoderm of parasegments 5-6.
The Antp protein domain remains unchanged in homozygous ftz mutant embryos. Embryos homozygous for eve3 showed no Antp staining but there is some staining in embryos homozygous for eve4. Normal homeotic gene function is seen in embryos homozygous for en<up>IO34, en54, en55, wgl-17, opa1, h41, odd5, prd4 and runB102. No Antp gene expression is seen in ftz,prd or opa,prd double mutant embryos and there is normal staining in odd,eve double mutant embryos. The Antp protein domain is normal in hb mutants, extended in width in kni mutants and lacking in KrB206 mutants.
Antp protein is first detected in germ band extended embryos in the presumptive thoracic region. The region extends from the posterior compartment of the labial segment to the anterior compartment of A1. The heaviest staining is in parasegment 4. As the germ band shortens, Antp protein is observed in the ectoderm of posterior T1 and in T2 and T3. As the germ band shortens further, expression diminishes in posterior T3 and appears in the ventral nervous system. With germ band shortening, expression in the ectoderm continues to decrease. Antp protein first appears in the ventral nervous system in 10 pairs of patches in the neurogenic region. Antp protein is present in the ventral nervous system from the posterior part of T1 to the anterior part of A7. At early stages, protein levels are uniform between the thoracic and abdominal segments. As development proceeds protein levels increase in posterior T1, anterior T2 and anterior T3 and diminish in the abdominal segments. Antp protein is also present in some cells of the PNS during germ band retraction. In the thorax, areas of strong Antp protein do not overlap areas of strong Ubx protein expression.
Antp protein is first detected at the onset of germ band retraction. It is limited to the thoracic segments in the epidermis but it is found in all neuromeres in the head, thorax and abdomen. At about 10hr of development, Antp protein levels increase in all neuromeres. This is followed by a rapid disappearance of protein from the neuromeres of the head and abdominal segments. Protein disappears completely from A8 and A9. As a consequence, Antp protein mainly accumulates in the ventral nervous system from posterior T1 to anterior T3 with a gap in posterior T2. Antp protein is also observed in imaginal discs. It is present in the posterior compartment of the 1st leg disc and the anterior compartments of the second and third leg discs. It is expressed most strongly in the proximal regions that will give rise to thoracic structures but is also expressed weakly in a part of the second leg disc that gives rise to the leg. Antp protein is observed in the part of the wing disc that will give rise to thoracic structures of the prescutum.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Antp-lacZ.2d9}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-Antp.P1.A}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}Antp-10
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Antp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 106 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 71 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Antp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Antp
Deletions and Duplications ( 72 )
Disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
external sensory organ & thorax
macrochaeta & head
macrochaeta & postpronotum
mesothoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
metathoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
prothoracic leg & macrochaeta | somatic clone
scutum & macrochaeta | somatic clone
somatic muscle & mesothoracic segment
somatic muscle & mesothoracic segment, with Scer\GAL4how-24B
somatic muscle & metathoracic segment
wing & macrochaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (38)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
 
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (37)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
 
5 of 15
No
No
 
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
 
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (36)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
No
5 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (31)
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (45)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (12)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190CSF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150AOV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0C7D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07SH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G09XD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (19)
5 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    enhanceable
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-48
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:6,896,253..6,999,228 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    84A6-84B2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}pb04498 and P{lacW}l(3)L2100L2100
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    84A-84A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    84A4-84C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    84B1-84B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    84A-84C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    AntpHu has been recombination mapped to position 3-51.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (64)
    Genomic Clones (64)
    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: Antp CG1028
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Antp Aus
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      The posterior signalling centre (PSC) of the lymph gland is specified early in the embryo by Antp.
      Antp is a positive regulator of ap expression in the somatic mesoderm, demonstrating its cell autonomous role in muscle development.
      The modulation of Hox gene activation and repression functions can account for segment-specific morphological differences.
      brm interacts with osa to regulate the expression of the Antp P2 promoter.
      spen cooperates with Antp and tsh to repress head-like sclerites in the thorax and promote thoracic identity.
      In the antennal disc, Antp exerts its effects by suppressing the transcription of hth and thus preventing the nuclear localisation of exd.
      exd and hth are antennal-determining genes. hth is an antennal selector gene and Antp promotes leg development by repressing hth and consequently nuclear exd.
      Phenotypic analysis of double mutants implicates ct in the regulation of expression and/or function of Antp and pb.
      tsh specifies adult head segments by repressing Antp expression.
      The role of electrostatics in homeodomain-DNA interactions are investigated using techniques based around the use of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
      In vivo activity of Antp is modified by CkIIα-mediated phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Antp by CkIIα is important for preventing inappropriate activities of this homeotic protein during embryogenesis.
      An Antp fragment has been used as a probe to isolate B.mori Dfd and Scr genes.
      Effects of overexpression of ANTP-C genes on tarsal segmentation in ss mutants is studied.
      Identification: Defined as part of an analysis of the MBT (Malignant Brain Tumor) chromosome which dissected its effects into its component contributive alleles.
      Muscle patterning in the mesothoracic segment has a non-autonomous requirement for Antp. Antp has no autonomous mesodermal function in the development and patterning of T2-specific musculature in the embryo. Antp is the homeotic selector gene required for autonomous specification of segmental identity in T3 mesoderm.
      Antp 5' UTR acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), the Antp 5' UTR inserted between a Ecol\CAT and Ecol\lacZ dicistronic gene shows IRES activity in transgenic flies. The IRES exhibits high degree of developmental regulation.
      One of a class of genes with TATA-less promoters that have the conserved DPE sequence.
      Amino acids in the N-terminal arm of the homeodomain, as well as at position 54 of the homeodomain, control the DNA binding specificity of the homeodomain. The DNA-binding specificity of a single homeodomain is conferred by several determinants.
      Region of the Antp homeodomain responsible for internalisation is mapped to the third helix and a 16 amino acid long peptide corresponding to this region translocates across biological membranes, enters the cytoplasm and is conveyed to the nucleus (FBrf0076807). Internalisation does not required specific interactions with a chiral receptor or the formation of a charged pore by an α-helical conformation of the peptide.
      The dose-response dynamics of the antenna disc exposed to genes that transform antenna to leg-like structures are determined. Varying the duration and temperature of heat shock over the course of the sensitive period is used to assess the timing of changes in sensitivity of the antenna-to-leg transformation. Varied sensitivities are found both spatially and temporally.
      Chromosome homologies of Muller's element D (J chromosome in the Paleartic species and XR chromosome arm in Nearctic species) and of element E (O chromosome in the Paleartic species and 2 chromosome in Nearctic species) have been confirmed by single copy probes in the species of the obscura group and in D.melanogaster.
      A phylogenetic analysis of the Antp-class of homeodomains in nematode, Drosophila, amphioxus, mouse and human indicates that the 13 cognate group genes of this family can be divided into two major groups. Genes that are phylogenetically close are also closely located on the chromosome, suggesting that the colinearity between gene expression and gene arrangement was generated by successive tandem gene duplications and that the gene arrangement has been maintained by some sort of selection.
      At the locations of the first and third constrictions, opa is positively regulated by Antp and abd-A respectively.
      In combination with pbhs.PB, antennae of dominant Antp mutants are transformed to novel appendage of new combinatorial identity, mixed leg/maxillary identity or epistatic interactions.
      Variation of a microsatellite within the Antp locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.
      Expression of Antp in C.elegans demonstrates the specificity of function of the Drosophila and C.elegans Hox proteins is conserved in an assay to control the anterior versus posterior migration of Q-cell decendents. The Drosophila protein can substitute the normal function of the C.elegans protein in three different cell-fate decisions.
      The physical association of exd protein with Ubx protein and other HOM proteins is studied using a yeast two-hybrid system.
      Antp complex genes have been cloned from A.domestica (cricket), O.fasciatus (milkweed bug) and T.domestica (firebrat), each of which has a distinct head morphology.
      Heat shock induction of Antp can cause a leg bristle transformation preceding the morphological antenna to leg transformation. This uncoupling of cell differentiation from morphogenesis suggests separate mechanisms may be involved in the determinative events underlying these processes.
      Ecol\lacZ reporter gene constructs indicate that repression of Antp promoter 1 expression is controlled by the bithorax group genes via elements present in the Antp first intron.
      Heat shock induced expression of mouse Hox genes in Drosophila embryos deficient for homeotic genes demonstrates that functional hierarchy is a universal property of the homeobox genes. Correlations exist between the expression patterns of the mouse Hox genes along the antero-posterior body axis of mice and the extent of their effect along the antero-posterior body axis of flies.
      A 16 amino acid peptide corresponding to Antp helix 3 with the N-terminal glutamate residue deleted is capable of translocating through biological membranes.
      Systematic characterisation of DNA sequence recognition properties reveals that Antp, Ubx and Dfd protein homeodomain regions binds preferentially to a core sequence which differs from the binding sequence of Abd-B. Antp and Ubx homeodomains display indistinguishable preferences outside the core, while Ubx differs.
      Antp, Ubx, abd-A, dpp and wg are required for proper tsh expression. The control of tsh by Ubx, abd-A and probably also by Antp is mediated by secreted signalling molecules.
      NMR experiments determine the complete solution structure of the ftz homeodomain and compare it to that of the Antp homeodomain.
      Homeoproteins Ubx and abd-A act through the same downstream element to differentially regulate Antp P1 promoter activity. This demonstrates that regulatory specificity can result from differences in activity than targetting.
      Ligation mediated PCR procedure has been used to quantitate the accessibility of restriction sites in the chromatin fibre of Abd-B expressed in the wing and eye-antennal disc. Inactivation is not accompanied by substantial change in the accessibility of the chromatin fibre.
      Ectopic expression of dpp eliminates Scr and Antp expression, attenuating abd-A expression, inducing Ubx, dpp, wg and tsh expression in the visceral mesoderm and inducing lab expression in the apposing endoderm. The result is failure of all of the morphogenetic events except formation of midgut constriction 2.
      Structure-function analysis of AntpNs and several of its revertants and a study of the normal and ectopic gene activity of Antp.
      30 common binding sites for Ubx and abd-A product have been identified in the Antp P2 promoter. Different mechanisms of repression of Antp by Ubx and abd-A product operate in different tissues.