ANT-C, Hu, DmAntp, Scx, Antennapaedia
The secondary structure of an N-terminally elongated Antp protein fragment, including both the homeodomain and the YPWM motif, from amino acids -14 to +67 was determined by NMR in solution (this study). Results strongly support the conclusion that the homeodomain is connected through a flexible linker to the main body in the Antp protein and that the minor groove contacts by residues 1-6 are intrinsic to the DNA binding interactions of the Antp protein (this study). The stability and specificity of the DNA binding previously observed for the shorter Antp
homeodomain polypeptide is preserved for the elongated polypeptide.
Sequences of the mammalian thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTf-1) and Antp homeodomains were exchanged to identify regions responsible for DNA binding specificity. Mutations that make the TTf-1 recognition helix identical to that of Antp have no effect on binding specificity. Sequences outside of the recognition helix are shown to play a role in determining binding specificity.
The 1:1 complex of the mutant AntpC39S homeodomain with a 14bp DNA fragment corresponding to the BS2 binding site was studied by NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution. The AntpC39S protein and the DNA were found to have similar conformations in the free form and in the complex. In the complex, intermolecular 1H-1H Overhauser effects (NOE) are involved in protein-DNA binding.
NMR spectroscopy in solution was used to determine the structure of the Antp homeodomain. It includes 3 well defined helices (residues 10-21, 28-38, and 42-52) and a more flexible fourth helix (53-59). Residues 30-50 form a helix-turn-helx motif like those in various prokaryotic repressors. The fourth helix is unique to the Antp homeodomain.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Antp using the Feature Mapper tool.
Antp is expressed in a gradient in the ventral nerve cord in the NB5-6 lineage, high anteriorly and low posteriorly, with the anterior limit at segment T1. In both NB5-6A and NB5-6T expression begins at embryonic stage 12 and is maintained in all cells born after this stage.
Protein is detected in the anterior embryonic dorsal vessel. The protein is strongly expressed in four consecutive pairs of cardioblasts corresponding to tin expressing cardioblasts in abdominal segment A1 and the boundary between A1 and A2. There is also weaker expression in tin positive cardioblasts in A2 and thoracic segment 3.
The level of Antp protein (expressed from the + chromosome) is reduced in imaginal discs of Df(3R)SCB-XL2/+ third instar larvae.
Antp protein is expressed in all thoracic imaginal discs in distinct patterns. No significant staining is seen in the eye-antennal disc.
Mutants in the shv region of dpp cause a posterior shift of both the Antp protein expression domain and the first midgut constriction. Furthermore, the Antp domain includes only the anterior portion of the first midgut constriction and no longer extends on either side.
Antp protein is first detected in embryonic stage 13 in the visceral mesoderm. It is expressed in a domain that is 8 nuclei long and is located posterior to and separated from the Scr domain. By stage 14, the two lateral patches expressing Antp protein split. In stage 16, Antp protein expression is seen in the anterior constriction. Later in stage 16, the patches spread out along the anterior/posterior body axis while the midgut constrictions tilt. Finally, during stage 17, the Antp protein-expressing nuclei form four one-nucleus-wide rows.
Antp protein is first detected prior to the germ band retraction stage in the visceral mesoderm of the midgut and the ectoderm of parasegments 5-6.
The Antp protein domain remains unchanged in homozygous ftz mutant embryos. Embryos homozygous for eve3 showed no Antp staining but there is some staining in embryos homozygous for eve4. Normal homeotic gene function is seen in embryos homozygous for en<up>IO34, en54, en55, wgl-17, opa1, h41, odd5, prd4 and runB102. No Antp gene expression is seen in ftz,prd or opa,prd double mutant embryos and there is normal staining in odd,eve double mutant embryos. The Antp protein domain is normal in hb mutants, extended in width in kni mutants and lacking in KrB206 mutants.
Antp protein is first detected in germ band extended embryos in the presumptive thoracic region. The region extends from the posterior compartment of the labial segment to the anterior compartment of A1. The heaviest staining is in parasegment 4. As the germ band shortens, Antp protein is observed in the ectoderm of posterior T1 and in T2 and T3. As the germ band shortens further, expression diminishes in posterior T3 and appears in the ventral nervous system. With germ band shortening, expression in the ectoderm continues to decrease. Antp protein first appears in the ventral nervous system in 10 pairs of patches in the neurogenic region. Antp protein is present in the ventral nervous system from the posterior part of T1 to the anterior part of A7. At early stages, protein levels are uniform between the thoracic and abdominal segments. As development proceeds protein levels increase in posterior T1, anterior T2 and anterior T3 and diminish in the abdominal segments. Antp protein is also present in some cells of the PNS during germ band retraction. In the thorax, areas of strong Antp protein do not overlap areas of strong Ubx protein expression.
Antp protein is first detected at the onset of germ band retraction. It is limited to the thoracic segments in the epidermis but it is found in all neuromeres in the head, thorax and abdomen. At about 10hr of development, Antp protein levels increase in all neuromeres. This is followed by a rapid disappearance of protein from the neuromeres of the head and abdominal segments. Protein disappears completely from A8 and A9. As a consequence, Antp protein mainly accumulates in the ventral nervous system from posterior T1 to anterior T3 with a gap in posterior T2. Antp protein is also observed in imaginal discs. It is present in the posterior compartment of the 1st leg disc and the anterior compartments of the second and third leg discs. It is expressed most strongly in the proximal regions that will give rise to thoracic structures but is also expressed weakly in a part of the second leg disc that gives rise to the leg. Antp protein is observed in the part of the wing disc that will give rise to thoracic structures of the prescutum.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\Antp in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: Antp CG1028
Source for merge of: Antp Aus
The posterior signalling centre (PSC) of the lymph gland is specified early in the embryo by Antp.
The modulation of Hox gene activation and repression functions can account for segment-specific morphological differences.
The role of electrostatics in homeodomain-DNA interactions are investigated using techniques based around the use of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.
In vivo activity of Antp is modified by CkIIα-mediated phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of Antp by CkIIα is important for preventing inappropriate activities of this homeotic protein during embryogenesis.
Effects of overexpression of ANTP-C genes on tarsal segmentation in ss mutants is studied.
Identification: Defined as part of an analysis of the MBT (Malignant Brain Tumor) chromosome which dissected its effects into its component contributive alleles.
Muscle patterning in the mesothoracic segment has a non-autonomous requirement for Antp. Antp has no autonomous mesodermal function in the development and patterning of T2-specific musculature in the embryo. Antp is the homeotic selector gene required for autonomous specification of segmental identity in T3 mesoderm.
Antp 5' UTR acts as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), the Antp 5' UTR inserted between a Ecol\CAT and Ecol\lacZ dicistronic gene shows IRES activity in transgenic flies. The IRES exhibits high degree of developmental regulation.
One of a class of genes with TATA-less promoters that have the conserved DPE sequence.
Amino acids in the N-terminal arm of the homeodomain, as well as at position 54 of the homeodomain, control the DNA binding specificity of the homeodomain. The DNA-binding specificity of a single homeodomain is conferred by several determinants.
Region of the Antp homeodomain responsible for internalisation is mapped to the third helix and a 16 amino acid long peptide corresponding to this region translocates across biological membranes, enters the cytoplasm and is conveyed to the nucleus (FBrf0076807). Internalisation does not required specific interactions with a chiral receptor or the formation of a charged pore by an α-helical conformation of the peptide.
The dose-response dynamics of the antenna disc exposed to genes that transform antenna to leg-like structures are determined. Varying the duration and temperature of heat shock over the course of the sensitive period is used to assess the timing of changes in sensitivity of the antenna-to-leg transformation. Varied sensitivities are found both spatially and temporally.
Chromosome homologies of Muller's element D (J chromosome in the Paleartic species and XR chromosome arm in Nearctic species) and of element E (O chromosome in the Paleartic species and 2 chromosome in Nearctic species) have been confirmed by single copy probes in the species of the obscura group and in D.melanogaster.
A phylogenetic analysis of the Antp-class of homeodomains in nematode, Drosophila, amphioxus, mouse and human indicates that the 13 cognate group genes of this family can be divided into two major groups. Genes that are phylogenetically close are also closely located on the chromosome, suggesting that the colinearity between gene expression and gene arrangement was generated by successive tandem gene duplications and that the gene arrangement has been maintained by some sort of selection.
Expression of Antp in C.elegans demonstrates the specificity of function of the Drosophila and C.elegans Hox proteins is conserved in an assay to control the anterior versus posterior migration of Q-cell decendents. The Drosophila protein can substitute the normal function of the C.elegans protein in three different cell-fate decisions.
Heat shock induction of Antp can cause a leg bristle transformation preceding the morphological antenna to leg transformation. This uncoupling of cell differentiation from morphogenesis suggests separate mechanisms may be involved in the determinative events underlying these processes.
Heat shock induced expression of mouse Hox genes in Drosophila embryos deficient for homeotic genes demonstrates that functional hierarchy is a universal property of the homeobox genes. Correlations exist between the expression patterns of the mouse Hox genes along the antero-posterior body axis of mice and the extent of their effect along the antero-posterior body axis of flies.
A 16 amino acid peptide corresponding to Antp helix 3 with the N-terminal glutamate residue deleted is capable of translocating through biological membranes.
Systematic characterisation of DNA sequence recognition properties reveals that Antp, Ubx and Dfd protein homeodomain regions binds preferentially to a core sequence which differs from the binding sequence of Abd-B. Antp and Ubx homeodomains display indistinguishable preferences outside the core, while Ubx differs.