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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\scny
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
scrawny
Annotation Symbol
CG5505
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260936
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Ubiquitinyl hydrolase 1 (3.4.19.12)
Gene Snapshot
In progress.Contributions welcome.
Also Known As
Usp36, dUSP36, mule, ubiquitin-specific protease 36, l(3)02331
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:5,769,002..5,776,271 [+]
Recombination map
3-15
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the peptidase C19 family. (Q9VRP5)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
Thiol-dependent hydrolysis of ester, thioester, amide, peptide and isopeptide bonds formed by the C-terminal Gly of ubiquitin (a 76-residue protein attached to proteins as an intracellular targeting signal) (3.4.19.12)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
UBIQUITIN SPECIFIC PROTEASES (DEUBIQUITINASES) -
The Ubiquitin Specific Proteases (USP) is the largest sub-family of deubiquitinases. They are cysteine proteases and catalyze the removal of ubiquitin from ubiquitin chains and ubiquitinated proteins. (Adapted from PMID:19626045).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Hydrolase that deubiquitinates polyubiquitinated target proteins including imd (PubMed:19837371, PubMed:19039105). Required for preventing the constitutive activation of the imd/NF-kappa-B (Imd) signaling cascade under unchalleneged conditions (PubMed:19837371, PubMed:25027767). Deubiquitinates imd linked 'Lys-63' chains which leads its proteasomal degradation and consequently down-regulation of the Imd signaling cascade (PubMed:19837371). Removal of the activating 'Lys-63'-linked chains is likely to enable their replacement with 'Lys-48'-linked chains which act as 'tags' the for proteosomal degradation of imd (PubMed:19837371). Required for maintaining multiple types of adult stem cells, including male and female germline, epithelial follicle cell and intestinal stem cells (PubMed:19039105). May function as a transcriptional repressor by continually deubiquiting histone H2B at the promoters of genes critical for cellular differentiation, thereby preventing histone H3 'Lys-4' trimethylation (H3K4me3) (PubMed:19039105). Controls selective autophagy activation by ubiquitinated proteins (PubMed:22622177).
(UniProt, Q9VRP5)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
protein deubiquitinase required in germline, epithelial, and intestinal stem cells - acts to repress differentiation genes - deubiquitylates histone H2B and functions in gene silencing - participates in a conserved pathway of chromatin regulation linking H2B ubiquitylation with H3K4me3 methylation
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\scny or the JBrowse view of Dmel\scny for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077101
3512
968
FBtr0077103
3637
948
FBtr0077100
4417
1038
FBtr0307975
4470
976
FBtr0307976
4303
976
FBtr0330127
3644
886
FBtr0330128
4538
906
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0076807
107.3
968
9.57
FBpp0076809
105.0
948
9.70
FBpp0076806
114.1
1038
9.53
FBpp0300344
106.0
976
8.12
FBpp0300345
106.0
976
8.12
FBpp0303160
96.8
886
8.41
FBpp0303161
99.1
906
8.19
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

976 aa isoforms: scny-PG, scny-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with atms/PAF1, but not with CycT (PubMed:19039105). Interacts (via C-terminus) with imd (via N-terminus) (PubMed:19837371).
(UniProt, Q9VRP5)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\scny using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (22 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VN55
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002541993
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002541993
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002541993
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR018200
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult fat body

Comment: cyclical, peak ZT21-0

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expressed cyclically in the adult fat body.
The expression of this gene along with several others is induced in salivary glands in pupae at the time of head eversion. This stage is characterized by an increase in the ecdysone titer as well as large amounts of cell death in this tissue.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\scny in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of scny
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of scny
Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
intestinal stem cell & adult midgut
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (30)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (11)
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902J6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504G2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W049R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X046B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with atms/PAF1, but not with CycT (PubMed:19039105). Interacts (via C-terminus) with imd (via N-terminus) (PubMed:19837371).
    (UniProt, Q9VRP5 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Imd Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway result in the decreased activity of the NFκB-like transcription factor Rel in the nucleus. Negative regulators are important in preventing damage to the host from over-activation of the pathway; preventing inappropriate triggering or terminating the response. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-15
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:5,769,002..5,776,271 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    64E8-64E12
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    64E8-64E12
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (15)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (125)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for identity of: mule CG5505
    Source for identity of: Usp36 mule
    Source for identity of: scny Usp36
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: Usp36 l(3)02331
    Source for merge of: mule anon-WO0118547.247
    Additional comments
    FlyBase curator comment: Correspondence with author Buszczak revealed that 'scny' = 'CG5505'.
    Source for merge of mule anon-WO0118547.247 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
    Other Comments
    scny negatively regulates the IMD pathway and suppresses fly immunity through its catalytic activity.
    Usp36 encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme homologous to the human USP36 protein.
    Usp36 mutant larvae are severely impaired in growth and die during the larval stages. They undergo the first larval moult more slowly than wild-type larvae and only a fraction of them undergo the second larval moult. The delayed first larval moult can be partially rescued by feeding ecdysone to the mutant larvae.
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against mule that is transfected into S2 treated with Listeria monocytogenes reveals mule to be involved in Listeria monocytogenes intracellular growth, with increased intracellular growth observed in mule-treated cells.
    mule encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme.
    Most loss of function mutants of mule have a lethal phenotype, however the authors original mule allele is viable, with only germline defects. mule mutant ovaries are very small and consist mostly of somatic tissue, however germline stem cells are still present.
    Area matching Drosophila ESTs AA246386 and AA541060.
    Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Overexpression of a long form of the gene inhibit apoptosis, whereas overexpression of the short form has a proapoptotic effect. The gene is thus named "emperor's thumb" for this ability to regulate both life (thumbs up) and death (thumbs down).
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 69 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-WO0118547.247
    Name Synonyms
    Ubiquitin specific protease 36
    Ubiquitin-specific protease 36
    lethal (3) 02331
    mule
    ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 36
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0035633
    • FBgn0062147
    • FBgn0010777
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (93)