General Information
Symbol
Dmel\app
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
approximated
Annotation Symbol
CG42318
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260941
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Protein S-acyltransferase (2.3.1.225)
Gene Snapshot
Approximated is a palmitoyltransferase involved in planar cell polarity. It regulates Fat signaling and d localization and activity. [Date last reviewed: 2017-06-15]
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:12,206,238..12,266,841 [-]
Recombination map
3-38
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the DHHC palmitoyltransferase family. ERF2/ZDHHC9 subfamily. (A2VEY9)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Palmitoyl-CoA + [protein]-L-cysteine = [protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + CoA (2.3.1.225)
Summaries
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Palmitoylates Dlish which is required for the apical cell cortex localization, total cellular level and full activity of dachs.
(UniProt, A2VEY9)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
app: approximated
Crossveins close together; veins diverge at greater angle than wild type; effect visible in prepupal wing [Waddington, 1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139 (fig.)]. Legs short with four-jointed tarsi; the penultimate joint characteristically swollen [Waddington, 1939, Growth Suppl. 37-44 (fig.)]. Joint between second and third tarsal segments often incomplete; invaginations or internalization of cuticle seen in tarsi 1, 3, and 4 (Held, Duarte, and Derakhshanian, 1986, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 145-57). Thickset body. Posterior scutellars farther apart than normal. Eyes smaller and flatter than normal, also bumpy. Spread wings; thickened veins. RK1.
Interactive Fly
DHHC family protein, responsible for the palmitoylation of selected cytoplasmic proteins - acts by controlling the normal subcellular localization and activity of Dachs in the Fat signaling pathway
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
5

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\app or the JBrowse view of Dmel\app for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.41
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0301052
2889
398
FBtr0301053
2867
398
FBtr0301054
6652
755
FBtr0301055
6630
755
FBtr0301056
4559
693
FBtr0301057
4537
693
FBtr0304661
4422
382
FBtr0334102
4156
693
FBtr0334103
2679
476
FBtr0339925
4505
693
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0290274
43.9
398
8.00
FBpp0290275
43.9
398
8.00
FBpp0290276
82.3
755
8.93
FBpp0290277
82.3
755
8.93
FBpp0290278
75.0
693
6.50
FBpp0290279
75.0
693
6.50
FBpp0293203
42.2
382
8.26
FBpp0306224
75.0
693
6.50
FBpp0306225
50.5
476
5.23
FBpp0308957
75.0
693
6.50
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

693 aa isoforms: app-PL, app-PM, app-PR, app-PT
398 aa isoforms: app-PH, app-PI
755 aa isoforms: app-PJ, app-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with Dlish (via N-terminus including SH3 domain 1); this leads to palmitoylation of Dlish by app. Interacts with ft; this is likely to interfere with the interaction between app and Dlish, reducing the ability of app to palmitoylate Dlish and tether it to the apical cell cortex.
(UniProt, A2VEY9)
Domain
The DHHC domain is required for palmitoyltransferase activity.
(UniProt, A2VEY9)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\app using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (10 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000004236
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000525256
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000525256
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000004236
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000525256
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000525256
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000525256
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\app in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 25 )
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
Deletions and Duplications ( 14 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (21)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (22)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (19)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
No
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (30)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (18)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (16)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (4)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904HD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502YQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01QT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01OT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0BOW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Human Disease Model Data
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
    Download
    Models ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Interactions ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments ( 0 )
     
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
    protein-protein
    Interacting group
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Dlish (via N-terminus including SH3 domain 1); this leads to palmitoylation of Dlish by app. Interacts with ft; this is likely to interfere with the interaction between app and Dlish, reducing the ability of app to palmitoylate Dlish and tether it to the apical cell cortex.
    (UniProt, A2VEY9 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-38
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:12,206,238..12,266,841 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    69A2-69A2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0508805088 and P{PZ}l(3)0692406924
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    69A3-69A4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    3-37.5
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (25)
    Genomic Clones (47)
    cDNA Clones (53)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: CG17144 CG5620
    Source for merge of: app CG42318
    Source for merge of: CG5620 CR32097
    Additional comments
    Annotations CG17144 and CG5620 merged as CG42318 in release 5.9 of the genome annotation.
    Annotations CG5620 and CR32097 merged as a single annotation (CG5620) in release 3.2 of the genome annotation.
    Other Comments
    New annotation (CR32097) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
    Candidate gene for tibia length quantitative trait locus.
    Mutation analysis suggests app is involved in pattern formation of the wings, legs and thorax.
    Mutant alleles have abnormal legs, with reduction of tarsal segments (at least). The wings are reduced in size with the crossveins closer together than in the wild-type. Body size is normally reduced. These phenotypes appear to be due to abnormal apoptosis.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Curry, 25th Jan. 1934.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 60 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    Linkouts
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (72)