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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Vmat
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Vesicular monoamine transporter
Annotation Symbol
CG33528
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260964
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Vesicular monoamine transporter (Vmat) encodes a protein responsible for packaging the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and octopamine into secretory vesicles. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As

dVMAT, DVMAT-A, l(2)SH0459

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:13,513,132..13,534,251 [-]
Recombination map

2-68

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:13513132..13534251
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (16 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001519357
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011701
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004734, InterPro:IPR011701
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000607052
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SLC18 FAMILY OF VESICULAR NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS -
Solute carrier family 18 (SLC18) members are vesicular neurotransmitter transmembrane transporters for the biogenic amines and acetylcholine. (Adapted from FBrf0225369).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Vmat or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Vmat for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.42

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0091493
2470
610
FBtr0091492
2446
646
FBtr0091491
7325
610
FBtr0310062
7141
610
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0090963
65.6
610
4.82
FBpp0090962
68.7
646
4.74
FBpp0090961
65.6
610
4.82
FBpp0301763
65.6
610
4.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

610 aa isoforms: Vmat-PC, Vmat-PE, Vmat-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Vmat using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult head

Comment: Transcripts encoding both Vmat protein isoforms are expressed: isoform A (Vmat-RC,RE and RF) and B (Vmat-RD).

Additional Descriptive Data

Vmat is expressed in the H-cell and in three VUM neurons.

An isoform of Vmat with a retained 3' intron is expressed in a layer between the retina and the lamina in the adult brain.

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

Transcripts encoding both Vmat protein isoforms are detected in clusters of cells in the embryonic ventral nerve cord. These include unpaired neurons at the midline of each segment, bilateral cells dorsal and posterior to each of these unpaired neurons, and more dorsally located cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ventral nerve cord | dorsal | restricted

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

ventral midline | restricted

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

embryonic/larval brain | restricted

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

dopaminergic neuron | subset of embryonic/larval brain

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

ventral midline | restricted

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

ventral nerve cord | dorsal | restricted

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult head

Comment: Antibody specific to Vmat isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF).

Additional Descriptive Data

Vmat labels the fenestrated glia layer located between the lamina and the retina.

Vmat protein is present in a punctate pattern in the cell body, and in the synapses of the cell processes of neurons in the central brain.

An antibody directed against an isoform of Vmat containing a retained 3' intron detects expressed in a thin layer between the retina and the lamina in the adult brain.

Vmat protein is detected in a subset of the neurons in the dorsomedial (DM) and dorsolateral (DL1) dopaminergic clusters. Expression is also detected in a large number of dopaminergic neurons in the medulla. Vmat protein localises to a lateral protocerebrum serotonergic cluster, that projects to the medulla, lobula and lamina. In the medulla, expression is detected in medulla layers M1, M2, M4, M8-M10; it does not colocalise with the terminals of the photoreceptors R7 and R8 or the monopolar cells L1 and L2. In the central brain, Vmat protein is expressed in the serotonergic neurons that innervate the fan-shaped body.

Vmat protein isoform A (Vmat-PC,PE and PF) is detected in clusters of cells in the embryonic and larval ventral nerve cord. These include unpaired neurons at the midline of each segment, bilateral cells dorsal and posterior to each of these unpaired neurons, and more dorsally located cells. Expression of Vmat-A isoform is also detected in clusters of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons in the larval brain.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GMR76F01-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR76F02-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR76F05-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Vmat in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Vmat
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Vmat
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
1  
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (11)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906TI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504BG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W056L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02C3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0534 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
7 of 10
6 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-68

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:13,513,132..13,534,251 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    50B2-50B3
    Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0157097) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0157097)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    50B2-50B3
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (62)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Vmat CG33528

    Source for merge of: Vmat l(2)SH0459

    Source for merge of: CG6119 CG6139

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG6119 and CG6139 merged as CG33528 in release 4.1 of the genome annotation.

    Other Comments

    1 allele of l(2)SH0459 recovered in a P-insertion screen.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 56 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)SH0459
    l(2)SH2 0459
    Name Synonyms
    CG33528
    Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter
    Vesicular monoamine transporter
    Vmat
    lethal (2) SH0459
    vesicle transporter
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0259816
    • FBgn0085016
    • FBgn0053528
    • FBgn0033849
    • FBgn0033852
    • FBtr0087689
    • FBpp0086808
    • FBtr0087690
    • FBpp0086809
    • FBtr0087691
    • FBpp0086810
    • FBtr0087692
    • FBpp0086811
    • FBgn0065773
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (127)