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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\vtd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
verthandi
Annotation Symbol
CG17436
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260987
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
verthandi (vtd) encodes a subunit of the cohesin complex, which encircles sister chromatids after DNA replication and has multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression and DNA repair. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
Rad21, Scc1, DRAD21, cohesin, l(3)80Fh
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:27,136,525..27,157,999 [+]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
COHESIN -
The cohesin complex forms a ring-like structure which encircles sister chromatids holding them together after DNA replication. Cohesin also has roles in the regulation of gene expression and DNA repair. (Adapted from FBrf0207490).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
vtd: verthandi (J.A. Kennison)
Recessive. Suppresses extra sex combs in Pc4/+ male flies.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
constituent of the cohesin complex, functions in chromosome cohesion, spindle morphology, dynamics of a chromosome passenger protein, and stability of the cohesin complex
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\vtd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\vtd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0113746
2299
715
FBtr0344093
2527
633
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
2.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0112469
79.9
715
4.61
FBpp0310518
70.6
633
4.57
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\vtd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000002161
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000286904
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000286904
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000286904
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\vtd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of vtd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of vtd
Deletions and Duplications ( 49 )
Disrupted in
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903J2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501ZJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W035R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X032N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03QW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
suppressible
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-47
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:27,136,525..27,157,999 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
80F-80F
Left limit from inclusion within Df(3L)9-52 (FBrf0048227) Right limit from non-inclusion within Df(3L)9-10 (FBrf0048227)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Heterochromatic, cytological location not yet determined.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (16)
Genomic Clones (10)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (23)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: vtd l(3)80Fh
    Source for merge of: vtd Rad21
    Source for merge of: Rad21 scc1
    Additional comments
    "vtd" does not correspond to "Dbp80".
    Source for merge of Rad21 scc1 was sequence comparison ( date:000202 ).
    Other Comments
    vtd is required for synaptonemal complex maintenance, but not sister chromatid cohesion, during female meiosis.
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in chromosome misalignment on the metaphase spindle when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.
    S2 cells transfected with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene show longer metaphase spindles.
    Genetic analysis suggests that wild type Rad21 function is required for proper progression through mitosis, in particular for normal chromosome segregation.
    Mutant cells delay in prometaphase with normally condensed, but prematurely separated sister chromatids and with abnormal spindle morphology.
    Transiently named CG40222 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
    Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.
    vtd is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.
    One of a series of EMS-induced lethals detected by failure to complement proximal heterochromatic deficiencies in 3L or 3R, which resulted from detachments, i.e., reconstitutions of normal third chromosomes, from irradiated C(3L)RM/C(3R)RM-bearing females; a large set of such proximal heterochromatic deficiencies was employed in deficiency mapping of these lethals (Marchant and Holm, 1988).
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Kennison, 1983.
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 50 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0003993
    • FBgn0002297
    • FBgn0027941
    • FBgn0058222
    • FBan0017436
    • FBgn0026057
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (169)