General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PPO3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Prophenoloxidase 3
Annotation Symbol
CG42640
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261363
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Prophenoloxidase 3 is expressed in lamellocytes (a type of hemocyte cell involved in encapsulation) and is involved in the melanization reaction during wasp encapsulation. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Also Known As
Dox-A3, proPO59
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:23,064,769..23,067,183 [+]
Recombination map
2-102
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the tyrosinase family. (Q9W1V6)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
PHENOLOXIDASES -
Phenoloxidases (POs) are innate immune proteins involved in the melanization process. POs catalyze the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which subsequently polymerize into melanin at the site of infection and around parasites. POs are synthesized as an inactive zymogen prophenoloxidase (PPO), which are cleaved to generate active POs. (Adapted from FBrf0224867 and FBrf0229770).
DIPHENOL OXIDOREDUCTASES, OXYGEN AS ACCEPTOR -
Diphenol oxidoreductases with oxygen as acceptor include dehydrogenases that oxidize diphenols and related substances with the reduction of oxygen molecule.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6 dihydroxyindole to indole-5'6 quinone (By similarity).
(UniProt, Q9W1V6)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dox3
Apparently the structural gene of the A3 component of phenol oxidase.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\PPO3 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\PPO3 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302290
2228
683
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291496
79.3
683
6.55
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification
Upon activation, a trypsin type protease cleaves prophenol oxidase to yield the active enzyme.
(UniProt, Q9W1V6)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PPO3 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (5 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
lamellocyte

Comment: after wasp infestation

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{PPO3-GAL4.D}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PPO3-lacZ.F}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PPO3 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of PPO3
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
    Deletions and Duplications ( 0 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903EB )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501RL )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01JV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X009O )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G03VO )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2R
      Recombination map
      2-102
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2R:23,064,769..23,067,183 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      59C3-59C3
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (7)
      Genomic Clones (13)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (7)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      BDGP DGC clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for identity of: proPO59 CG42640
        Source for identity of: PPO3 proPO59
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Developmental expression profile and immunoblot analyses indicate that CG2952 does not encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 and it is more likely that CG8193 encodes the A3 component of phenol oxidase.
        FlyBase curator comment: The "Dox-3, Dopa oxidase-3" locus originally described in FBrf0043263 had incorrectly been merged with the gene corresponding to the CG2952 annotation in FlyBase, based on the GenBank accession AB055857. The merged gene was called "Dox-A3, Diphenol oxidase A3" (FBgn0000487) in FlyBase, since it had been proposed (in FBrf0043263) that the Dox-3 locus was the structural locus for the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315. However, as pointed out in FBrf0207791, the AB055857 accession is chimeric, containing portions of CG2952 and CG8193 (both of are predicted to encode prophenol oxidases based on their sequence) and also of CG14196. Evidence in FBrf0207791 (developmental expression profile, immunoblot analyses) indicates that CG2952 does not encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 and it is more likely that CG8193 encodes the A3 component. However FBrf0207791 notes there is a discrepancy between the location of CG8193 and that of the mutant Dox-3 strains described in FBrf0043263. Thus it is possible that these mutant strains do not affect the structural locus for the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315, but instead represent a modifying factor. Due to the uncertainty over the various components, the "Dox-A3" (FBgn0000487) gene has been split into two separate genes in FlyBase (release FB_2009_09): a gene representing the CG2952 annotation (this annotation and the gene symbol have been renamed to CG42640 in release 5.22 of the genome annotation to avoid confusion) and "Dox-3, Dopa oxidase-3", representing the locus originally described in FBrf0043263. The CG8193 gene record (FBgn0033367) remains as a separate gene record in FlyBase until more evidence is available to determine whether or not it encodes the structural locus for the A3 phenol oxidase and whether or not the Dox-3 strains affect this locus.
        Other Comments
        Both PPO2 (derived from the crystal cells) and PPO3 (derived from the lamellocytes) contribute to the encapsulation of parasitic wasp eggs seen in infested D. melanogaster larvae. PPO3 does not contribute to hemolymphatic phenoloxidase activity upon septic or clean injury.
        FlyBase curator comment: the gene referred to as "DoxA3" in FBrf0187450 corresponds to the gene encoded by the CG42640 annotation, which has been shown not to encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 (see FBrf0207791). The symbol confusion probably arose due to errors in FlyBase prior to release FB_2009_09 in the representation of D.melanogaster phenol oxidase genes (see FBrf0208743).
        FlyBase curator comment: the gene referred to as "Dox-A3" in FBrf0190812 corresponds to the gene encoded by the CG42640 annotation, which has been shown not to encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 (see FBrf0207791). The symbol confusion probably arose due to errors in FlyBase prior to release FB_2009_09 in the representation of D.melanogaster phenol oxidase genes (see FBrf0208743).
        FlyBase curator comment: the gene referred to as "doxA3" in FBrf0180471 corresponds to the gene encoded by the CG42640 annotation, which has been shown not to encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 (see FBrf0207791). The symbol confusion probably arose due to errors in FlyBase prior to release FB_2009_09 in the representation of D.melanogaster phenol oxidase genes (see FBrf0208743).
        FlyBase curator comment: the gene referred to as "doxA3" in FBrf0167553 corresponds to the gene encoded by the CG42640 annotation, which has been shown not to encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 (see FBrf0207791). The symbol confusion probably arose due to errors in FlyBase prior to release FB_2009_09 in the representation of D.melanogaster phenol oxidase genes (see FBrf0208743).
        FlyBase curator comment: the gene referred to as "Dox-A3" in FBrf0159548 corresponds to the gene encoded by the CG42640 annotation, which has been shown not to encode the A3 phenol oxidase component originally described in FBrf0017315 (see FBrf0207791). The symbol confusion probably arose due to errors in FlyBase prior to release FB_2009_09 in the representation of D.melanogaster phenol oxidase genes (see FBrf0208743).
        FlyBase curator comment: The AB055857 accession is chimeric, containing portions of CG2952 and CG8193 (both of are predicted to encode prophenol oxidases based on their sequence) and also of CG14196.
        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 32 )
        Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Linkouts
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (48)