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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\scra
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
scraps
Annotation Symbol
CG2092
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261385
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
scraps (scra) encodes a homolog of anilin, a conserved pleckstrin homology domain (PLEKH) containing protein that binds actin, nonmuscle myosin II and microtubules. It stabilizes the contractile ring and is required for completion of cytokinesis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

anillin, Ani, l(2)43Ec

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:7,590,119..7,595,242 [+]
Recombination map

2-57

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:7590119..7595242
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for cytokinesis. Essential for the structural integrity of the cleavage furrow and for completion of cleavage furrow ingression and proper formation of the midbody. Required during cellularization of syncytial embryos for the proper formation and function of the furrow canals, the stable inward folds of the plasma membrane which separate the peripheral nuclei. Also required for the formation of the pole cells, the progenitors of the adult germline which are formed by cytokinesis of the cytoplasmic buds at the posterior pole of the syncytial embryo. Essential for embryonic viability.
(UniProt, Q9V4P1)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
scra: scraps (T. Schupbach)
Maternal-effect lethal. Embryos from homozygous females begin to cellularize at the blastoderm stage, but cellularization is often not completed; further development very abnormal; at final differentiation embryos form only fragmented pieces of cuticle.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

encodes anillin - conserved component of the contractile ring that is essential for cytokinesis - physically interacts with three conserved cleavage furrow proteins, F-actin, myosin II and septins - required for cellularization

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\scra or the JBrowse view of Dmel\scra for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088911
4147
1212
FBtr0088912
4311
1239
FBtr0100216
2260
616
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087985
132.9
1212
6.06
FBpp0087986
136.0
1239
6.16
FBpp0099586
66.3
616
6.98
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1201 (aa); 190 (kD observed); 132 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with and bundles F-actin.

(UniProt, Q9V4P1)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\scra using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (29 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Synd; FB:FBgn0053094
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001853010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
epitope tag
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
cell

Comment: expression assayed in cultured S2 cells; metaphase

cell

Comment: telophase; expression assayed in cultured S2 cells

cell

Comment: expression assayed in cultured S2 cells; metaphase

western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

scra protein is localized to the cytoskeleton during syncytial stage embryos. In dividing cells, the protein is localized in the nucleus during interphase. At nuclear breakdown, it becomes cytoplasmic and moves to the actin filaments in the cortex. During anaphase and telophase, it becomes highly enriched in the cleavage furrow along with myosin II. It is also found in metaphase furrows and nascent ring canals where it remains bound to the invaginated cortex. It is not expressed in cells that have left the cell cycle.

In S2 cells the scraprotein is found in a diffuse cortical pattern during methaphase but concentrates first in a broad equatorial band in anaphase then at the contractile ring throughout telophase.

scra protein is localized to the cellularization front, where it is required for microfilament ring formation during cellularization of the embryo.

scra protein expression is detected at all developmental stages with the highest levels in early to mid embryos.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\scra in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 20 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of scra
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of scra
Deletions and Duplications ( 50 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
furrow canal & egg | maternal effect
furrow canal & egg | maternal effect (with scra1)
furrow canal & egg | maternal effect (with scra4)
furrow canal & egg | maternal effect (with scra5)
neuron & external sensory organ (with scra8)
neuron & external sensory organ (with scrak08255)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
5 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901B5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501JX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02WA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02T2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G01HH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with and bundles F-actin.
    (UniProt, Q9V4P1 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-57

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:7,590,119..7,595,242 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    43E3-43E6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1600EP398 and P{PZ}scra03427&P{EP}EP2179; Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    43E1-43E5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    43D-43E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (154)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: scra CG2092

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: scra Ani

      Source for merge of: scra l(2)k08255

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      scra is required for the unequal cell divisions of the pIIb and pIIIb neuronal precursor cells, but not for the equal cell divisions of the lineage related precursor cells, during peripheral nervous system development in the embryo.

      Expression is enriched in embryonic gonads.

      dsRNA has made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene and transfected into Kc167 cells. More than 50% of these cells become multinucleate, suggesting a defect in cytokinesis.

      scra is required for the terminal (post-furrowing) events of cytokinesis; scra RNAi causes gradual disruption of the intercellular bridge after furrowing.

      dsRNA directed against this gene causes defects in cytokinesis when tested in an RNAi screen in S2 cells.

      scra plays a role in the cytoskeletal dynamics that occur during cellularization of the blastoderm.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: binucleate cells.

      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

      During prophase, in nuf-derived embryos, scra and pnut localise to regions of the furrows lacking actin.

      scra has been cloned and sequenced, and its expression pattern has been analysed.

      Mutants exhibit an increase in neuronal cell size, it is possible l(2)k08255 plays a role in cell division.

      Mutations in scra result in a maternal effect phenotype with defects during cellularisation of the blastoderm.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named "Anillin" (from the Spanish "anillo", for ring) based on the ring-shaped distribution of the protein in dividing cells.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Abp8
      l(2)03427
      l(2)k08255
      Name Synonyms
      Actin-binding protein 8
      lethal (2) k08255
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004243
      • FBgn0003340
      • FBgn0004134
      • FBgn0010540
      • FBgn0011558
      • FBgn0015994
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (259)