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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Rpn3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Regulatory particle non-ATPase 3
Annotation Symbol
CG42641
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261396
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

Dox-A2, p58, Diphenol oxidase A2, l(2)37Bf, DoxA2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:19,051,790..19,053,681 [+]
Recombination map

2-54

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:19051790..19053681
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR013586
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:9560
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000823
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000079540
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the proteasome subunit S3 family. (P25161)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PROTEASOME REGULATORY PARTICLE NON-ATPASES -
The 26S proteasome degrades polyubiquitinated proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is formed from a cylindrical catalytic core 20S proteasome capped at each end by a regulatory 19S particle. The 19S regulatory particle recognizes, unfolds, and translocates ubiquitinated proteins into the catalytic core particle in an ATP-dependent manner. 'Rpn' subunits are non-ATPase subunits located in the base and lid subcomplexes of the regulatory particle (Adapted from FBrf0215459 and PMID:28583440.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Acts as a regulatory subunit of the 26 proteasome which is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins.
(UniProt, P25161)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Dox-A2: Diphenol oxidase A2 subunit
The structural gene for the A2 component of phenol oxidase, which utilized diphenol substrates. Developmentally regulated; levels low until just prior to pupariation; dramatic rise to maximum at puparium formation, followed by reduced, but still high, levels throughout pupal stage, again decreasing at eclosion (Geiger and Mitchell, 1966, J. Insect Physiol. 12: 755-65). Heterozygotes for lethal alleles show reduced diphenol oxidase activity; homozygotes die as first instar larvae; dead larvae do not turn black. One homozygous Dox-A21 escaper reaching pharate adult stage was liberated from the pupa case; it was chalk white, devoid of any cuticular pigment; cell lethal; no homozygous clones observed for any of the lethal alleles.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Rpn3 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302289
1831
494
FBtr0336843
1692
494
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.657 (compiled cDNA)

1.7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291495
56.0
494
9.41
FBpp0307804
56.0
494
9.41
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

494 aa isoforms: Rpn3-PA, Rpn3-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

494 (aa); 56 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

The 26S proteasome is composed of a core protease, known as the 20S proteasome, capped at one or both ends by the 19S regulatory complex (RC). The RC is composed of at least 18 different subunits in two subcomplexes, the base and the lid, which form the portions proximal and distal to the 20S proteolytic core, respectively (By similarity).

(UniProt, P25161)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Rpn3 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data

Dox-A2 transcripts are less abundant in embryos than in larvae and adults.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Rpn3 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Rpn3
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Rpn3
Deletions and Duplications ( 22 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190727 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915041M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03TN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03QW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05QN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    The 26S proteasome is composed of a core protease, known as the 20S proteasome, capped at one or both ends by the 19S regulatory complex (RC). The RC is composed of at least 18 different subunits in two subcomplexes, the base and the lid, which form the portions proximal and distal to the 20S proteolytic core, respectively (By similarity).
    (UniProt, P25161 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map

    2-54

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:19,051,790..19,053,681 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    37B12-37B12
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)37Dbk16106&P{lacW}Catsupk05424 and P{lacW}Ddck02104
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    37B10-37B10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    2-53.9

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (102)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Rpn3 Dox-A2

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    The nomenclature of genes encoding subunits of the 26S proteasome of D. melanogaster have been standardized according to FBrf0215459. These symbols/names largely follow those used already in FlyBase, and largely mirror fly community usage. HOWEVER, note that at least one other nomenclature system exists that is followed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), for example, with the unfortunate result that several D. melanogaster genes have shared synonyms.

    FlyBase curator comment: FBrf0044478 showed that lesions in the gene corresponding to the CG10484 annotation reduce the activity of the A2 component of phenol oxidase originally described in FBrf0017315, while the A1 and A3 phenol oxidase components originally described in FBrf0017315 are unaffected in these mutant alleles. Thus FBrf0044478 states that the mutants probably identify a structural locus for the A2 phenol oxidase component and designated this locus "Diphenol oxidase-A2, Dox-A2". However, cloning of the gene in FBrf0054017 revealed that the encoded protein had no homology to non-insect phenol oxidases at that time, but instead shows high amino acid identity (57% over the entire length of the D. melanogaster protein) to the mouse Psmd3 gene (accession number MGI:48687), which encodes a proteasome subunit. FBrf0128494 showed that the protein encoded by the CG10484 annotation is a subunit of the regulatory complex of the 26S proteasome in D. melanogaster. FBrf0058767 suggests that the A2 component of phenol oxidase seen in FBrf0017315 could have been an artificial derivative produced from either the A1 or A3 components by the activity of endogenous proteases during extraction, since protease inhibitors were not used in sample preparation (the A2 phenol oxidase component was not detected in FBrf0058767 where serine proteases inhibitors were present during sample preparation). Alternatively, FBrf0027144 shows that the speck (sp) mutants have a marked decreased in the amount of the A2 component of phenol oxidase, and thus FBrf0044480 notes that the A2 component may be a dimer of two non-identical subunits coded for by "Dox-A2" and sp. Given the uncertainty over whether the gene corresponding to the CG10484 annotation does encode a structural locus for the A2 component of phenol oxidase, but the good evidence that it is a proteasome subunit, the gene has been renamed to "Rpn3, Regulatory particle non-ATPase 3" following the nomenclature used in FBrf0152082, which uses the nomenclature used for S. cerevisiae proteasome regulatory particle subunits described in PubMed:9697412. In addition, the annotation corresponding to the gene has been renamed from CG10484 to CG42641 in release 5.22 of the genome annotation.

    The "Dox-A2" locus may encode a structural locus for the A2 component of diphenol oxidase. The speck (sp) locus may also be a structural gene for the A2 component (FBrf0027144), so the A2 component may be a dimer of two non-identical subunits.

    Mutations at the Dox-A2 locus alter only the activity of the A2 component of phenol oxidase, thus Dox-A2 probably identifies a structural locus for the A2 component.

    Other Comments

    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

    Located between coordinates -64.5 and -62.8.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 82 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Diphenol oxidase-A2
    Regulatory particle non-ATPase 3
    diphenol oxidase A2
    regulatory particle nonATPase
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0000486
    • FBgn0261364
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (81)