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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\hkb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
huckebein
Annotation Symbol
CG9768
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261434
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
huckebein (hkb) is expressed in patches within the embryonic neuroectoderm and a subset of neuroblasts and their progeny, where it is required for proper neuronal specification and axon targeting. It is a terminal gap gene mediating the maternal terminal information at the posterior end of the blastoderm embryo. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

gurtelchen, gurt

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:4,345,015..4,346,646 [-]
Recombination map

3-47.1

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:4345015..4346646
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004619861
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004619861
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:h; FB:FBgn0001168
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004619861
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN004619861
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SP1/KLF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
The Sp1/KLF (Sp1-like/Kruppel-like factors) family of zinc finger proteins are DNA binding proteins. They can act as activators or repressors and some members bind sequences within Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). (Adapted from FBrf0188187).
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

tf - zinc finger - terminal gap gene - limits the extent of mesodermal development - required for proper endoderm formation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\hkb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\hkb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0078951
1567
297
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0078591
32.6
297
9.34
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\hkb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

salivary gland body primordium

Comment: reported as salivary gland body specific anlage

anterior endoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

posterior ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

Additional Descriptive Data

hkb transcript disappears from the procephalic ectoderm by stage 11 and is restricted to neuroblasts derived from these regions. However, a lacZ reporter displays a longer perdurance in these regions. Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - d6, d8, v1; deuterocerebrum - d1-10, d12, d13, v1-v8; protocerebrum - cd2, cv7

hkb transcript is first detected in the salivary gland primordia in the posterior-most cells and then subsequently in dorsal-posterior cells that are the first to invaginate. There is also concomitant expression in a small group of cells in the dorsal-anterior region. Expression is higher in the dorsal aspect of the primordia but there is low level expression in the ventral region of the placode. hkb transcripts decreased and disappeared as invagination proceeded.

hkb transcript is expressed in two domains in the cellular balstoderm, forming an anterior and a posterior cap.

Expression of the terminal gap gene hkb is first detected in the anterior and posterior tips of the syncytial blastoderm. During gastrulation, hkb expression is shifted to a more ventral position so as to abut the invaginating ventral furrow. Later in gastrulation, the polar expression of hkb disappears. Instead, hkb transcript is present in the salivary gland placodes and in a metameric pattern in the developing CNS. hkb is expressed in the CNS through the rest of embryonic development. In hkb mutant embryos, the mesodermal and ectodermal primordia expand at the expense of the endoderm, indicating that hkb is required for endoderm development. When hkb is ectopically expressed in embryos, the expression of the central gap gene gt is reduced, and invagination of the ventral furrow is disrupted.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

At the blastoderm stage, hkb protein is expressed in the anterior and posterior tips of the embryo, and at stage 7, it is expressed in the anterior and posterior midgut primordia. Starting at stage 8, until late stage 11, hkb protein is detected in the neurectoderm. hkb protein appears first in a neurectodermal cluster, then in the neuroblasts which laminate from that position, and finally in the early progenitors of these neuroblasts. The exception is neuroblast NB1-1, which begins expressing hkb protein partway through its development. hkb protein is detected in the central nervous system until the end of stage 16. hkb protein expression pattern closely matches the hkb transcript expression pattern, but the protein persists slightly longer than the RNA.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{lacW}hkbs5953
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
neuroblast NB1-1

Comment: reference states 5-5.5 hr AEL

neuroblast NB2-2

Comment: reference states 5-5.5 hr AEL

neuroblast NB2-5

Comment: reference states 5-5.5 hr AEL

neuroblast NB4-2

Comment: reference states 5-5.5 hr AEL

High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\hkb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of hkb
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of hkb
Deletions and Duplications ( 12 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
RP2 neuron & axon
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
0  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1  
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (12)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (18)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D5D )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150CLW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08U6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08Q3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (21)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-47.1

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:4,345,015..4,346,646 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    82A4-82A4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0273302733 and P{EP}EP974
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    82B3-82B3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (52)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: hkb gurt

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for hkb protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see mE1_TFBS_hkb collection report.

      hkb triggers gcm autoregulation via direct physical interaction.

      hkb controls polarised cell shape change and apical membrane growth during salivary gland cell invagination in the embryo, via crb and klar.

      Internalisation of the salivary gland and salivary gland shape are altered in hkb mutant embryos.

      gro protein mediates repressor activity of the hkb protein.

      hkb is required zygotically for the migration of the germ cells through the posterior midgut wall.

      Mutants are isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis: mutants exhibit gut development defects.

      cad acts in hindgut development through fog, fkh and wg, but does not play a role in activating tll, hkb, byn and bowl which are also required for proper hindgut development.

      eg and hkb act in concert to determine serotonergic cell fate in the developing central nervous system.

      The expression pattern of hkb protein during embryogenesis has been studied.

      Repression of oc expression at the anterior terminus of the blastoderm is mediated by hkb and requires input from all three maternal morphogens that specify embryonic head development.

      hkb is necessary and sufficient for the expression of eve in the identified neural NB4-2 lineage.

      DiI has been used to trace the entire NB4-2 lineage in wild type and hkb mutant embryos. The number, position or type of neurons in the lineage are not affected, but hkb specifies aspects of CNS precursor identity required for motoneuron axon pathfinding.

      hkb is involved in regulation of serotonin cell development and has a role in neuronal identity subsequent to formation of neuroblast 7-3.

      hkb is necessary for endoderm development and its activity defines the spatial limits within the blastoderm embryo in which the germ layers are established.

      hkb is a repressor of byn expression.

      twi, sna, hkb and tll gene products define the positions of the primordia of the germ layers and thereby the regions in which the blastoderm epithelium will invaginate.

      Mesodermal fate is determined where sna and twi but not hkb are expressed. Anteriorly, hkb together with sna determines endodermal fate, and hkb together with twi and sna are required for foregut development. hkb is a good candidate for factor X and factor Y, necessary for setting the anterior and posterior borders of the ventral furrow.

      srp acts downstream of hkb to promote morphogenesis and differentiation of anterior and posterior midgut.

      The role of hkb in the regulation of run mRNA expression in the early embryo has been investigated.

      In mutant embryos, which do not form endodermal derivatives, germ band retraction is properly executed.

      An artificial bcd responder gene composed of three bcd consensus binding sites driving Ecol\lacZ is activated by bcd and repressed by tor. This repression does not require tll or hkb.

      Expression analysed in CNS study of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells, using an enhancer trap to reveal the expression pattern.

      In csw- embryos hb remains as a posterior cap and the seventh ftz stripe expands posteriorly, both due to lack of hkb repressing activity.

      The activation and spatial limitation of tll and hkb expression in the posterior region of the embryo is critically dependent on tor activity. The spatial limitation of hkb and tll expression is not regulated by the "central gap genes" which are essential for the establishment of segmentation in the trunk of the embryo, and also does not involve mutual interactions between hkb and tll.

      At the anterior end of the embryo tor effects on gt are mediated primarily through hkb.

      Mutations in zygotic cardinal gene hkb do not interact with RpII140wimp.

      The effect of hkb on hb and ftz expression has been studied.

      hkb represses Kr expression in the central segmentation domain and activates Kr expression in the posterior Malpighian tubule domain.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 28 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      anon-82B3
      hkb
      (Johnson and Toettcher, 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Goyal et al., 2018, Forés et al., 2017, Goyal et al., 2017, Johnson et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Wolfstetter et al., 2017, Urbach et al., 2016, Cicin-Sain et al., 2015, Forés et al., 2015, Kozlov et al., 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Nadimpalli et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Boyle et al., 2014, Jiang and Singh, 2014, Navarro et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Combs and Eisen, 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Peters et al., 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Webber et al., 2013, Andrioli et al., 2012, Aswani et al., 2012, Crombach et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kvon et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Turki-Judeh and Courey, 2012, Ajuria et al., 2011, Dunipace et al., 2011, Fowlkes et al., 2011, Garcia and Stathopoulos, 2011, Grillo et al., 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Kaplan et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kim et al., 2011, Kuzin et al., 2011, Li et al., 2011, Nègre et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Tio et al., 2011, Tsurumi et al., 2011, Uddin et al., 2011, Frise et al., 2010, Ismat et al., 2010, Kazemian et al., 2010, Kechris et al., 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, The modENCODE Consortium, 2010, Tipping et al., 2010, Ashyraliyev et al., 2009, Huh et al., 2009, Löhr et al., 2009, Moore et al., 2009, Wolfstetter et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Blanco and Gehring, 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Cinnamon et al., 2008, Dougherty et al., 2008, Florence and Faller, 2008, Frise et al., 2008, Jennings et al., 2008, Miura et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Segal et al., 2008, Astigarraga et al., 2007, Coppey et al., 2007, Harris and Beckendorf, 2007, Hatton-Ellis et al., 2007, Sandmann et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Abrams et al., 2006, Gresens and Cook, 2006.8.29, Jaeger and Reinitz, 2006, Jennings et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Abrams and Andrew, 2005, Brown et al., 2005, McDonald et al., 2003, Myat and Andrew, 2002, Hayashi and Murakami, 2001, Myat et al., 2000, Lundell et al., 1996)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0086720
      • FBgn0001204
      • FBan0009768
      • FBgn0014111
      Datasets (2)
      Study focus (2)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      ChIP characterization of transcription factor genome binding, Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Factor Network Project.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of transcription factors by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (406)