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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rdgA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
retinal degeneration A
Annotation Symbol
CG42667
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261549
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Diacylglycerol kinase (ATP) (2.7.1.107)
NAD(+) kinase (2.7.1.23)
Gene Snapshot
retinal degeneration A (rdgA) encodes a diacylglycerol kinase that mediates the conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. It contributes to phospholipase C based signalling reactions, controlling ion channel activity and protein transport. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
DGK, DAG kinase
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,907,068..9,029,476 [+]
Recombination map
1-25
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the eukaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family. (Q09103)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (2.7.1.107)
ATP + NAD(+) = ADP + NADP(+) (2.7.1.23)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASES -
Diacylglycerol kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to form phosphatidic acid. (Adapted from FBrf0161471).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the maintenance of phospholipid turnover within the photoreceptor.
(UniProt, Q09103)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
rdgA: retinal degeneration A (J.C. Hall)
Photoreceptors degenerate during first week of adult life, although electroretinogram is small at time of eclosion when photoreceptors are morphologically normal; exception: rdg1 which is already aberrant then (Stark and Carlson, 1985); degeneration of outer photoreceptors (R1-6) in each eye facet is more severe (i.e., is essentially complete) than that of inner two cells (R7,8), with the most severe central-cell degeneration caused by rdgA1 and rdgA2, rdgA4 being less severe, and rdg3 still less (Harris and Stark, 1977); the ocelli degenerate, too, with rdgA1 causing particularly severe effect (Johnson et al., 1982); degeneration of compound eye photoreceptors is not light- or temperature-dependent (Harris and Stark, 1977); such degeneration is photoreceptor-autonomous in mosaics (Hotta and Benzer, 1970; Harris and Stark, 1977); degenerating photoreceptor axon terminals, especially those projecting from R1-6 into the lamina optic ganglion, are phagocytosed by glia in that optic lobe (Stark and Carlson, 1985); in general, though, the gross and internal structure of the lamina seems quite normal, even after photoreceptor degeneration caused by most severe rdgA alleles is complete (Meyerowitz and Kankel, 1978, Dev. Biol. 62: 112-42; Johnson et al., 1982; Stark and Carlson, 1985); two polypeptide spots in 2-d gel analysis of eye-specific proteins are reduced in intensity under influence of rdgA4 [Hotta, 1979, Mechanisms of Cell Change (Ebert and Okada, eds.). John Wiley, New York, pp. 169-82]; rdgA mutations said to cause hypoactive behavior, and one of them also leads to shaking on exposure to ether plus premature death after exposure to 29 (Homyk, Pye and Pak, 1981, Genetics 97: s50).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
10

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\rdgA or the JBrowse view of Dmel\rdgA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302660
5598
1457
FBtr0302661
3919
1027
FBtr0302662
4974
1024
FBtr0302663
4276
1009
FBtr0302664
4222
991
FBtr0302665
5583
1452
FBtr0333601
8292
1462
FBtr0333602
10147
1460
FBtr0344165
5497
1307
FBtr0344166
5561
1314
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
9.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291800
160.1
1457
6.51
FBpp0291801
115.6
1027
7.60
FBpp0291802
113.7
1024
8.91
FBpp0291803
113.0
1009
8.32
FBpp0291804
110.9
991
8.40
FBpp0291805
159.5
1452
6.51
FBpp0305778
160.8
1462
6.51
FBpp0305779
160.5
1460
6.58
FBpp0310579
143.7
1307
6.53
FBpp0310580
144.7
1314
6.57
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1454 (aa); 116 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rdgA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (16 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:Dgk; FB:FBgn0085390
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000135279
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR017438
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000135279
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000135279
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000135279
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000135279
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.
The 9.0 kb rdgA transcript is detected in adult heads, and localizes to the compound eye.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rdgA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 52 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rdgA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rdgA
Deletions and Duplications ( 21 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
ommatidium & microvillus
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (8)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190171 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500VM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00J3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00I8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G13Z8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-25
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:8,907,068..9,029,476 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    8B8-8C3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}MoeEP1652 and P{EP}CG10962EP1565&P{EP}EP1030
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    1-26.3 +/- 1.2
    1-26.3
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (22)
    Genomic Clones (35)
    cDNA Clones (269)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    polyclonal
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: rdgA CG12660
    Source for merge of: CG15352 rdgA
    Additional comments
    Annotations CG15352 and CG34344 merged as CG42667 in release 5.25 of the genome annotation.
    Annotations CG10966 and CG12660 merged as CG34344 in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: increased or polarized (uneven) accumulation of F-actin.
    rdgA is required for response termination in photoreceptors.
    Early degeneration in rdgA mutants may be caused by uncontrolled Ca2+ influx via the trp channels during a critical time window of pupal development.
    Mutant analysis suggests that rdgA and rdgB proteins function on the ocellar subrhabdomeric cisternae (SRC) in a similar manner to that in which they function in compound eyes.
    The eye specific form of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase (encoded by rdgA) is involved in the resynthesis of DAG which is essential for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate (PtdInsP2) needed for signal transduction.
    Mutations in rdgA cause retinal degradation.
    Photoreceptors degenerate during first week of adult life, although electroretinogram is small at time of eclosion when photoreceptors are morphologically normal.
    Degeneration of compound eye photoreceptors is not light- or temperature-dependent, such degeneration is photoreceptor-autonomous in mosaics.
    Degeneration of compound eye photoreceptors is photoreceptor-autonomous in mosaics.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 172 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    x35
    Name Synonyms
    CG12660
    Retinal Degeneration A
    diacylglycerol kinase
    receptor degeneration A
    receptor-degeneration-I
    retinal degeneration A
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0085373
    • FBgn0040930
    • FBgn0030069
    • FBgn0003217
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (172)