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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\wb
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
wing blister
Annotation Symbol
CG42677
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261563
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
wing blister (wb) encodes one of 2 laminin α chains which assembles into a Laminin molecule. Laminin is an extracellular matrix component that interacts with integrins and mediates cell adhesion, guidance, signalling and basement membrane integrity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
l(2)br1, BG:DS03792.2 , l(2)34Fb, A1, laminin α1,2
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:14,263,027..14,328,262 [+]
Recombination map
2-50
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LAMININS -
Laminins are major structural components of the basement membrane. (Adapted from FBrf0230242.)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
wb: wing blister
Most of the mutants are characterized by homo- or hemizygous lethality, but a visible phenotype has also been reported. O'Donnell et al., 1977, describe a bent-down-wing phenotype occurring when one of their lethals is crossed to other lethals in the same complementation group and the same phenotype when three of their lethals are crossed to deletions for the locus. Woodruff and Ashburner, 1979, describe the viable and fertile wing blister phenotype (a roughly circular area around the crossveins of the wing, forming a blister which often collapses soon after eclosion, distorting the wing blade). The allele showing this phenotype (wb1) is viable and fertile in homozygotes and hemizygotes as well as in heteroallelic combinations with lethal alleles.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\wb or the JBrowse view of Dmel\wb for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.42
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302731
11333
3375
FBtr0302732
8975
2567
FBtr0302733
9057
2567
FBtr0302734
9183
2567
FBtr0302735
8996
2567
FBtr0305063
10270
3001
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
11 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291871
374.7
3375
6.79
FBpp0291872
287.7
2567
8.40
FBpp0291873
287.7
2567
8.40
FBpp0291874
287.7
2567
8.40
FBpp0291875
287.7
2567
8.40
FBpp0293600
332.7
3001
6.61
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2567 aa isoforms: wb-PC, wb-PD, wb-PE, wb-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
3367 (aa); 360 (kD observed); 374 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\wb using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (7 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002576803
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000708002
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002576803
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000832138
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
11kb wb trancripts are first detected in early stages of embryogenesis and peak in 6-12hr embryos on northern blots. Transcripts are barely detectable in third instar larvae and increase again in pupal stages. A weak 10.5kb is also detected in later embryos. wb transcripts are first detected by in situ hybridization during oogenesis in nurse cells and growing oocytes. Transcripts are uniformly distributed in cleavage stage embryos and are enriched in cells of the trunk region in blastoderm embryos. During germ band extension, wb tr nscripts are uniformly distributed. After germ band retraction, transcripts accumulate in the visceral mesoderm, near muscle attachment sites, and in cardiac cells.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
wb protein is first observed in stage 10 embryos as a weak diffusive stripe between the ectoderm and the mesoderm. During germ band retraction, the protein is localized diffusely in the visceral mesoderm. At stage 14, strong staining is observed in the basement membranes that surround the digestive system and at muscle attachment sites. In later stages, staining is observed in dorsal structures along the ventral nerve cord and in basement membranes around the digestive system. wb protein is also observed in developing wing imaginal d scs in a spot pattern on the presumptive wing dorsal and ventral region.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\wb in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 84 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of wb
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of wb
Deletions and Duplications ( 124 )
Not disrupted in
Disrupted in
Partially disrupted in
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
 
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919001W )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915004N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W003O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X003E )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G005L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-50
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:14,263,027..14,328,262 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    35A3-35A4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)34Fak00811&P{PZ}wb09437 and P{EP}elBEP2039&P{PZ}osprJ571
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    34F1-34F4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 35A1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    35A1-35A2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Maps 0.1 cM to the left of Tp(2;2)Sco.
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (34)
    Genomic Clones (46)
    cDNA Clones (20)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: wb BEST:CK02229
      Source for merge of: wb CG15288
      Source for merge of: CG32970 BG:DS03792.2
      Source for merge of: wb CG32970
      Additional comments
      Annotations CG15288 and CG32970 merged as CG42677 in release 5.25 of the genome annotation.
      " BG:DS03792.2 " may correspond to "ms(2)34Fe".
      Other Comments
      One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      New annotation (CG32970) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
      wb is involved in processes requiring cell migration and cell adhesion.
      wb has been characterised as a potential ligand of PS2 integrins by functional interaction in cell culture.
      Identification: cDNA screen for secreted and transmembrane proteins expressed during embryogenesis.
      Mutants isolated in a screen of the second chromosome identifying genes affecting disc morphology.
      One allele in this group has bent down wings when crossed to either the other lethals in the group or with deletions that included this locus.
      Most of the mutants are characterized by homo- or hemizygous lethality, but a visible phenotype has also been reported. O'Donnell et al., 1977 describe a bent-down-wing phenotype occurring when one of their lethals is crossed to other lethals in the same complementation group and the same phenotype when three of their lethals are crossed to deletions for the locus. Woodruff and Ashburner, 1979 describe the viable and fertile wing blister phenotype (a roughly circular area around the crossveins of the wing, forming a blister which often collapses soon after eclosion, distorting the wing blade). The allele showing this phenotype (wb1) is viable and fertile in homozygotes and hemizygotes as well as in heteroallelic combinations with lethal alleles.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 83 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (36)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEST:CK02229
      l(2)09437
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004002
      • FBgn0025691
      • FBgn0032544
      • FBgn0052970
      • FBgn0028885
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (158)