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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\salm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
spalt major
Annotation Symbol
CG6464
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261648
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
spalt major (salm) encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor. It mediates most dpp functions during development of the central part of the wing through regulation of the products of kni and ara. The product of salm is required for cell specification during the development of the nervous system, muscle, eye or trachea. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
sal, spalt, l(2)03602
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:11,434,311..11,445,614 [-]
Recombination map
2-44
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the sal C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. (P39770)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the establishment of the posterior-most head and the anterior-most tail segments of the embryo. Probably function as a transcriptional regulator. Could repress the transcription of the tsh gene.
(UniProt, P39770)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sal: spalt
Embryonic lethal. Shows partial homeotic transformation of labium to prothorax and of A9 and 10 toward A8. Point mutants judged to be amorphic or nearly so judging from the phenotype of sal/Df compared with sal/sal. sal; Abd-B-double mutants exhibit thoracic structures in parasegments 14 and 15; similarly, sal and Scr seem to act independently on head structures in parasegments 2 and possibly 1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - zinc finger - PRDII-BF1 homolog - a target of Dpp signaling - Spalt and Spalt-related regulate the vein-specific expression of and and the gene complex, delimiting their domains of expression in the wing pouch
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\salm or the JBrowse view of Dmel\salm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Alternative translation stop created by use of multiphasic reading frames within coding region.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.52
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089913
6118
1365
FBtr0343619
6114
1355
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.1 (northern blot, compiled cDNA)
0.8 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088852
150.3
1365
6.41
FBpp0310214
149.0
1355
6.48
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\salm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (24 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR013087
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (22 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (20 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:salr; FB:FBgn0000287
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000579342
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as dorsal epidermis anlage

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 1-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
salr and salm transcripts and proteins are distributed in identical patterns in the third larval instar wing disc. In late third instar larval discs, expression is detected in a band perpendicular to the dorsoventral boundary.
In the cellular blastoderm stage embryo (stage 5), salm transcript is detected in three regions: a stripe in the posterior (12-20% of egg length), one in the anterior (60-70% egg length), and a "horse-shoe" domain at 80-86% egg length, in the presumptive pregnathal head region.
The salm transcript is present in 1-12 hour embryos, and at low levels in second instar larvae. salm transcript is first detected in embryonic cycle 14 of the syncytial blastoderm embryo in a ventro-lateral position. At the cellular blastoderm stage, the transcript is present at high levels in a region at 60-70% egg length and at 0-15% egg length. At the extended germ band stage, the posterior domain consists of the upper section of the midgut and hindgut rudiments, and the anterior domain is over the posterior portion of the cephalic furrow. The anterior and posterior domains of high salm expression persist through the extended germ band stage. At germ band retraction, salm transcript is present in the hindgut and in the cuticle primordium of each segment. After dorsal closure, salm is expressed in an area corresponding to the eye-antennal disc and the genital disc. Low level cuticle expression is still detected.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunohistochemistry
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | 60-70% egg length

Comment: late stage 4; ~60-70% egg length

Additional Descriptive Data
salm expression begins to appear in sens-positive photoreceptor neuron precursors (Bolwig organ primordium) in early stage 12, at which time sens expression is weakening. Expression continues through stage 15.
salr and salm proteins are predominantly nuclear.
salm is expressed in a subtype-specific fashion in the larval eye. In embryos, it is expressed in 3-4 immature photoreceptor cells. In the larva, it is expressed in the R5-specific photoreceptors of the Bolwig organ and is excluded from the R6 photoreceptors.
Expression in the anterior compartment is low. Expression is high in the posterior compartment which corresponds to veins L3 and L4. sal wing blade-specific enhancer that includes the information required to generate the salm expression domain in the wing.
Larval expression of salm protein is observed in photoreceptor cells R3 and R4 starting in row 3 and progressively fading between rows 7 and 11, in photoreceptor cell R7 starting in row 9, in photoreceptor cell R8 starting in row 11, in the anterior and posterior cone cells starting in row 11, and the four cone cells by row 14-15. By 24 hours pupariation, salm protein continues to be expressed in photoreceptor cells R7 and R8.
The pattern ofexpression of the Spalt proteins, products of salm and salr, are restricted to the medial portion of the dorsal compartment of the wing disc during third instar.
salm is expressed in non-neuronal cells of the Lch5.
The salm protein is expressed in the central region of the wing pouch flanking the anterior-posterior boundary.
salr and salm protein expression patterns were compared. The proteins have identical staining patterns in the wing imaginal disc (FBrf0087811) but have different patterns in the embryonic CNS and spiracles. salr is more abundant in the embryonic brain, while salm is more abundant in the posterior spiracle. The two proteins have overlapping but non-identical patterns in the ventral cord.
salr and salm transcripts and proteins are distributed in identical patterns in the third larval instar wing disc. In late third instar larval discs, expression is detected in a band perpendicular to the dorsoventral boundary.
In late stage 4embryos, salm protein is detected in a circumferential band at about60-70% egg length. This stripe persists into the cellular blastoderm stage(stage 5), when salm protein accumulation is seen in two additionalregions, at 12-20% egg length, and 80-86% egg length. salm transcriptand protein expression patterns in the cellular blastoderm stage embryothus overlap. At the extended germ band stage (stage 11), salm proteinaccumulates in the neurectoderm in a segmental pattern. Colocalizationstudies with en protein indicate that, although salm proteinexpression is strongest in parasegments 1 to 3, and again in parasegments14 and 15, some weak expression is also seen in parasegment 4. In stage 15to 17 embryos, salm protein is present in the central nervous system, aswell as the tracheal system.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{GawB}459.2
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}salmLP39
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}salmR7T3.8
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lacZ}Regio-2
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{PZ}salm03602
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{sal-lacZ.BO}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{salm-GAL4.EPv}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{salm-GAL4.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{salm-lacZ.1.1}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{salm-lacZ.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\salm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 29 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of salm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of salm
Deletions and Duplications ( 25 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial dendritic cap cell | supernumerary (with Df(2L)32FP-5)
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial ligament cell (with Df(2L)32FP-5)
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial neuron | supernumerary (with Df(2L)32FP-5)
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidial sheath cell | supernumerary (with Df(2L)32FP-5)
abdominal lateral pentascolopidial chordotonal organ lch5 & scolopidium | supernumerary (with Df(2L)32FP-5)
adherens junction & embryonic dorsal branch, with Scer\GAL4btl.PS
adherens junction & embryonic ganglionic branch, with Scer\GAL4btl.PS
adherens junction & embryonic tracheal system, with Scer\GAL4btl.PS
wing & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (19)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
 
6 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (16)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901ZJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150147 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01J1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01H5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02AM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
5 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-44
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:11,434,311..11,445,614 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
32F1-32F2
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)0400804008&P{PZ}cmet04431 and P{PZ}salm03602
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
32F1-32F2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
33A-33A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (21)
Genomic Clones (17)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (14)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: salm CG6464
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: salm B1164
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      salm acts to constrain the choice available between the two alternative tracheal tip cell types (fusion cell and terminal cell), being sufficient to inhibit terminal cell specification.
      The "spalt" genes (salm and salr) are specifically required in the R3 photoreceptor cell for the establishment of correct ommatidial polarity.
      salm is required and sufficient to inhibit cell intercalation and the formation of autocellular adherens junctions during tracheal development.
      Embryos which lack salm function show a severe neurodegenerative phenotype at 60% of embryonic development, but by 80% of embryonic development the central nervous system shows almost wild-type morphology.
      salr and salm are redundantly essential for proper joint formation between antennal segments 2 and 3.
      salm promotes oenocyte formation and suppresses chordotonal organ induction by acting both downstream and in parallel to Egfr signaling.
      salm and salr are essential for the terminal differentiation of R7 and R photoreceptors.
      Removal of salm function increases the number of scolopidia, as a result of extra secondary recruitment of precursor cells at the expense of the oenocytes in the developing pentascolopidial organ in the embryo.
      salm restricts the number of scolopidia to five per abdominal lch5 organ. It also ensures the correct location of this chordotonal organ along the dorsoventral axis.
      The regulation of the iroquois and kni gene complexes by salm and salr may translate the dpp morphogenetic gradient into precisely spaced pattern elements.
      salm and salr participate in the development of sensory organs in the thorax, mainly in the positioning of specific proneural clusters. They may belong to a category of transcriptional regulators that subdivide the thorax into expression domains (prepattern) required for the localised activation of proneural genes.
      salm is required for normal tracheal cell migration and morphogenesis in cells of the dorsal truck.
      Identification: Enhancer trap expression pattern survey for loci expressed in the ring gland.
      The salm cis-regulatory region contains an array of regulatory modules that mediate the spatio-temporal aspects of salm gene expression.
      sax regulates salm through its role in anterior posterior patterning of the wing pouch.
      Clonal analysis suggests salm determines the position of the L2 vein primordium by activating rho expression in neighbouring cells through a locally non-autonomous mechanism. rho then functions to initiate and maintain vein differentiation.
      Isolation and characterisation of salr, a gene arisen by reduplication and sequence diversification from the same ancestral gene as salm, that is still located close to salm in the genome. Sequence comparisons reveal a pattern of regional structural diversification of salm and salr. Electrophoretic mobility shift and footprinting assays demonstrate specific DNA binding of a conserved set of zinc fingers. The genes have extensive overlapping but not coincident patterns of expression in structures, such as the nervous system, indicating significant regulatory diversification.
      salm is involved in tracheal development at two different stages of embryonic development. salm represses tracheal placode formation in parasegments 2, 3, and 14. salm is also necessary for the directed migration of the dorsal trunk tracheal cells, which seems to be independent of branch fusion and general tracheal cell migration.
      The spatial domains of salm and bi expression are regulated by dpp. Secreted dpp directly defines the width of the salm domain.
      dpp acts as a gradient morphogen during wing development. Clonal analysis reveals that dpp, secreted by a stripe of wing cells along the anteroposterior compartment boundary, acts directly and at long range on surrounding cells and elicits qualitatively distinct outputs from these cells as a function of their distance from the dpp source. bi and salm are transcriptionally activated at different distances from the dpp secreting cells.
      salr and salm are expressed in response to dpp in a central territory of the wing imaginal disc, where they are required for the patterning of the wing. The phenotypic consequences of misexpression of salr and salm suggest that an important outcome of dpp activity is the subdivision of the wing disc into territories smaller than lineage compartments through the regulation of salr and salm.
      The organisation of the tail region of the embryo is documented from studies of cuticular markers enabling a more direct comparison between homologous structures on the embryo and larval cuticle.
      Wing veins, or ectopic paraveins produced by ectopic rho and Dl expression, form along boundaries of A-P positional coordinates in the developing wing.
      salm gene product directly or indirectly represses tsh gene expression in the labium and tail domains.
      The region specific homeotic gene salm is required for the establishment of posterior head and anterior tail segments of the embryo. salm gene product confers its function as a transcription factor.
      Enhancer trapping methods have been used to identify regulatory elements and corresponding genes that are influenced by the homeotic Antp gene product. Clonal analysis demonstrates that Antp expression in the mesothoracic leg disc is required to prevent expression of the salm gene: Antp negatively regulates salm. The cis-regulatory element whose activity is affected by Antp is located in a 3.5 kb EcoRI fragment.
      In embryos lacking salm in the trunk region Ubx and Scr are ectopically expressed. These results suggest that salm has a general role in ensuring the correct spatial expression of other homeotic genes and could be another member of the Pc class of regulatory genes.
      The region specific action of the salm gene promotes head and tail as opposed to trunk development in the embryo. The salm gene acts independently of BX-C genes. The anterior salm phenotype displays incomplete transformation of the labial segment into the adjacent prothoracic segment (parasegments 1 and 2, but not 3). The posterior phenotype is the transformation of A9 and A10 into A8 (parasegments 14 and 15, but not 13), this phenotype is associated with ectopic expression of Abd-B, but not of Ubx, abd-A and Scr.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 37 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      B1164
      sal
      (Al Khatib et al., 2017, Upadhyay et al., 2017, Mishra et al., 2016, Cheng and Andrew, 2015, Fried and Iber, 2015, Boube et al., 2014, Hsiao et al., 2014, Makki et al., 2014, Restrepo et al., 2014, Herrera et al., 2013, Mishra et al., 2013, Peterson and O'Connor, 2013, Upadhyai and Campbell, 2013, Shlevkov and Morata, 2012, Ziv et al., 2012, Chatterjee et al., 2011, de Navas et al., 2011, Glavic et al., 2011, Johnston et al., 2011, Pavlopoulos and Akam, 2011, Rodriguez, 2011, Sánchez et al., 2011, Zhai et al., 2011, Menéndez et al., 2010, Sánchez et al., 2010, Sánchez et al., 2010, Schwank and Basler, 2010, Shen et al., 2010, Terriente-Félix et al., 2010, Zhai et al., 2010, Cruz et al., 2009, Glavic et al., 2009, Goering et al., 2009, Hödl and Basler, 2009, Pentek et al., 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Bickel et al., 2008, Campbell and Moser, 2008, Caussinus et al., 2008, Shaye et al., 2008, Sprecher and Desplan, 2008, Yamaguchi et al., 2008, Araujo et al., 2007, Barrio et al., 2007, Bates and Whitington, 2007, de Navascués and Modolell, 2007, Gesualdi and Haerry, 2007, Jung et al., 2007, Krattinger et al., 2007, Molnar et al., 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Walsh and Carroll, 2007, Ashe, 2006, Cai, 2006, Lovegrove et al., 2006, Lovegrove et al., 2006, Neumann and Affolter, 2006, Noro et al., 2006, Merabet et al., 2005, Rodriguez and Guerrero, 2005, Angulo et al., 2004, Bornemann et al., 2004, Crozatier et al., 2004, del Alamo Rodriguez et al., 2004, Ribeiro et al., 2004, Robertson and Mahaffey, 2004, Takei et al., 2004, Winter and Campbell, 2004, Adachi-Yamada and Vaccaro, 2003.2.6, de Celis, 2003, de Celis and Diaz Benjumea, 2003, del Alamo et al., 2003, Klein, 2003, Lifanov et al., 2003, Makeev et al., 2003, Muller et al., 2003, Rudel and Sommer, 2003, Si-Dong et al., 2003, Suzanne et al., 2003, Adachi-Yamada and O'Connor, 2002, Brodu et al., 2002, Cantera et al., 2002, Chu et al., 2002, Dong et al., 2002, Dorfman et al., 2002, Franch-Marro and Casanova, 2002, Galant et al., 2002, Mann and Carroll, 2002, Milan et al., 2002, Panganiban and Rubenstein, 2002, Papatsenko et al., 2002, Petit et al., 2002, Affolter et al., 2001, Bradley and Andrew, 2001, Brodu et al., 2001, Cavodeassi et al., 2001, Elstob et al., 2001, Funakoshi et al., 2001, Gurdon and Bourillot, 2001, Halder and Carroll, 2001, Herranz and Morata, 2001, Llimargas and Lawrence, 2001, Rusten et al., 2001, Brown and Castelli-Gair Hombria, 2000, Chihara and Hayashi, 2000, de Celis and Barrio, 2000, Dong et al., 2000, Entchev et al., 2000, Funakoshi et al., 2000, Llimargas, 2000, Marty et al., 2000, Milan and Cohen, 2000, Mohler et al., 2000, Tanimoto et al., 2000, Wolf and Schuh, 2000, Zelzer and Shilo, 2000, Barrio et al., 1999, Brummel et al., 1999, Campbell and Tomlinson, 1999, Chen et al., 1999, Crozatier et al., 1999, de Celis and Barrio, 1999, de Celis et al., 1999, Gonzalez-Gaitan and Jackle, 1999, Hu and Castelli-Gair, 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Jazwinska et al., 1999, Kudoh, 1999, Kuhn et al., 1999, Morata and Sanchez-Herrero, 1999, Podos and Ferguson, 1999, Castelli-Gair, 1998, Castelli-Gair, 1998, Chen et al., 1998, Chen et al., 1998, de Celis, 1998, Gubb, 1998, Haerry et al., 1998, Haerry et al., 1998, Halder et al., 1998, Jazwinska et al., 1998, Kuhnlein et al., 1998, Kafatos, 1997, Kuhnlein et al., 1997, Kumar and Moses, 1997, Neumann and Cohen, 1997, Vincent et al., 1997, Vorbruggen et al., 1997, Wappner et al., 1997, Barrio et al., 1996, de Celis et al., 1996, Duncan, 1996, Kuhnlein and Schuh, 1996, Marin et al., 1996, Reuter et al., 1996, Harbecke and Lengyel, 1995, Kuhn et al., 1995, Mohler, 1995, Edgar et al., 1994, Kuhnlein et al., 1994, Landecker et al., 1994, Moriyama and Gojobori, 1992, Strecker et al., 1992, Finkelstein and Perrimon, 1991, Schuh et al., 1991, Casanova, 1989, Jurgens, 1988, Jurgens and Weigel, 1988, Tearle and Nusslein-Volhard, 1987)
      salm
      (Shokri et al., 2019, Ahmed-de-Prado et al., 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Hope et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Lorente-Sorolla et al., 2018, Ogiyama et al., 2018, Ugrankar et al., 2018, Valsecchi et al., 2018, Martín et al., 2017, Rohde et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Dubois et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Kahn et al., 2016, Kuleesha et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Shlyueva et al., 2016, Skottheim Honn et al., 2016, Matsuda et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Spletter et al., 2015, Housden et al., 2014, Oas et al., 2014, Palsson et al., 2014, Sánchez-Higueras et al., 2014, Spletter and Schnorrer, 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Caviglia and Luschnig, 2013, Kwon et al., 2013, Peterson and O'Connor, 2013, Bryantsev et al., 2012, Butchar et al., 2012, Hadar et al., 2012, He et al., 2012, Kim et al., 2012, Nikulova et al., 2012, Reid et al., 2012, Chatterjee et al., 2011, Choo et al., 2011, Schönbauer et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Ayroles et al., 2009, Bao and Friedrich, 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Dworkin et al., 2009, Grieder et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Ochoa-Espinosa et al., 2009, Wagner et al., 2009, Yamamoto et al., 2009.2.25, Beckervordersandforth et al., 2008, Christensen and Cook, 2008.4.15, Hauenschild et al., 2008, Sanders et al., 2008, Sprecher and Desplan, 2008, Tarone et al., 2008, von Hilchen et al., 2008, Zahedi et al., 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.10.29, Dworkin et al., 2007, Ebacher et al., 2007, Hueber et al., 2007, Jakobsen et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Parrish et al., 2007, Tyler et al., 2007, Zeng et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2006.12.5, Christensen and Cook, 2006.12.5, Grad et al., 2004, Kreiman, 2004, Gim et al., 2001)
      Name Synonyms
      spalt
      (Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard, 2016, Simon and Guerrero, 2015, Curtis et al., 2013, Shlevkov and Morata, 2012, Chatterjee et al., 2011, de Navas et al., 2011, Erickson, 2011, Pavlopoulos and Akam, 2011, Sánchez et al., 2011, Menéndez et al., 2010, Shen et al., 2010, Song et al., 2010, Terriente-Félix et al., 2010, Zhai et al., 2010, Cruz et al., 2009, Hödl and Basler, 2009, Pentek et al., 2009, Widmann and Dahmann, 2009, Bickel et al., 2008, Campbell and Moser, 2008, Caussinus et al., 2008, Coiffier et al., 2008, Cook et al., 2008, Hsiao et al., 2008, Yamaguchi et al., 2008, Barrio et al., 2007, Goodfellow et al., 2007, Molnar et al., 2007, Umemori et al., 2007, Kirkpatrick et al., 2006, Molnar and de Celis, 2006, Neumann and Affolter, 2006, Noro et al., 2006, Walsh and Carroll, 2005, Dudu et al., 2004, Moreno and Basler, 2004, Wernet and Desplan, 2004, de Celis, 2003, Emerald et al., 2003, Ghabrial et al., 2003, Gonzalez-Gaitan, 2003, Gonzalez-Gaitan, 2003, Jan and Jan, 2003, Jazwinska and Affolter, 2003, Mollereau et al., 2003, Ribeiro et al., 2003, Bier et al., 2002, Calleja et al., 2002, Das et al., 2002, Dong and Panganiban, 2002, Dong et al., 2002, Lohmann and McGinnis, 2002, Mann and Carroll, 2002, Niswander and Anderson, 2002, Okajima and Irvine, 2002, Petit et al., 2002, Pickup et al., 2002, Seto et al., 2002, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2002, Arquier et al., 2001, Brodu et al., 2001, Dong and Panganiban, 2001, Felix and Gehring, 2001, Gee and Shearn, 2001, Ingham and McMahon, 2001, Mollereau et al., 2001, van Roessel, 2001, Vincent and Briscoe, 2001, Vincent and Perrimon, 2001, Affolter, 2000, Day and Lawrence, 2000, de Celis and Bray, 2000, Fraser and Harland, 2000, Goulding and Lamar, 2000, Pages and Kerridge, 2000, Weber et al., 2000, Zimmerman et al., 2000, Arquier et al., 1999, Brown and Castelli-Gair, 1999, Bryant, 1999, Cavodeassi et al., 1999, Cooper and Bray, 1999, de Celis, 1999, Fanto and Mlodzik, 1999, Matakatsu et al., 1999, Paricio et al., 1999, Podos and Ferguson, 1999, Raftery and Sutherland, 1999, Akam, 1998, Chen et al., 1998, Dominguez and de Celis, 1998, Hidalgo, 1998, Johnston, 1998, Lecuit and Cohen, 1998, Lunde et al., 1998, Whitman, 1998, Burke and Basler, 1997, Chen and Schuh, 1997, Graba et al., 1997, Kim et al., 1997, Lunde et al., 1997, Serrano and O'Farrell, 1997, Weigmann et al., 1997, Kuhnlein and Schuh, 1996, Lawrence and Struhl, 1996, Lecuit et al., 1996, Nellen et al., 1996, Samakovlis et al., 1996, Smith, 1996, Akam, 1995, Wimmer et al., 1995, Manak and Scott, 1994, Cohen, 1993, Jurgens and Hartenstein, 1993, Schuh, 1993.11.3, Karlin et al., 1990)
      spalt majr
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004579
      • FBgn0010546
      • FBgn0259600
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (580)