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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cu
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
curled
Annotation Symbol
CG31299
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261808
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
curled (cu) encodes a NADP/NADPH phosphatase. It is involved in NADP metabolism, mRNA poly(A) tail shortening and response to light. cu mutants has wings curved upward. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-19]
Also Known As

nocturnin, nocturin

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:11,197,592..11,208,633 [+]
Recombination map

3-50

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:11197592..11208633
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the CCR4/nocturin family. (A8JQX3)
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Phosphatase which catalyzes the conversion of NADP(+) to NAD(+) and of NADPH to NADH (PubMed:31147539). Shows a small preference for NADPH over NADP(+) (PubMed:31147539). Because of its association with the CCR4-NOT complex, has a role in mRNA deadenylation and decay (PubMed:20504953). Required at the pupal stage for proper wing morphogenesis after eclosion (PubMed:19581445). Isoform C: Doesn't have a role in light-mediated behavioral response. Isoform D: In dorsal neurons, contributes to the light-mediated behavioral response. Isoform E: Doesn't have a role in light-mediated behavioral response.
(UniProt, A8JQX3)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
cu: curled
thumb
cu: curled
From Bridges and Morgan, 1923, Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 327: 152.
Wings curved upward throughout length and slightly divergent. Body color dark. Postscutellars erect and crossed. Good nutrition of larvae enhances curled character as does high temperature in last day of pupal life. (Nozawa, 1956, Jpn. J. Genet. 31: 321-26). RK1.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\cu or the JBrowse view of Dmel\cu for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0113218
1710
449
FBtr0113219
2192
642
FBtr0113220
1865
446
FBtr0335218
1695
441
FBtr0335219
1970
481
FBtr0335220
1598
419
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0112130
50.3
449
6.03
FBpp0112131
71.9
642
4.93
FBpp0112132
50.0
446
5.85
FBpp0307205
49.4
441
5.66
FBpp0307206
54.1
481
6.93
FBpp0307207
46.8
419
5.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Associates to the CCR4-NOT complex composed of at least Pop2/Caf1, Ccr4, Not1, Rga/Not2, and Not3.

(UniProt, A8JQX3)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cu using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (9 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000950416
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain

Comment: expression specific to cu isoforms cu-RC, RD and RE.

Additional Descriptive Data

cu transcripts cu-RC, cu-RD and cu-RE are detected in the adult brain. The transcript cu-RD is the only that shows cycling behaviour, with a peak around ZT8.

cu transcripts are detected at all stages by northern blot. Strong expression is observed in embryos in the proventricus, ring gland, and salivary glands and weak expression is seen in the midgut by in situ hybridization. Proventricular and ring gland expression is also observed in third instar larvae.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
DN3 neuron | subset

Comment: expression specific to cu isoform cu-PD.

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
adult brain

Comment: expression specific to cu isoform cu-PD.

Additional Descriptive Data

The cu protein isoform cu-PD shows cycling behaviour in the adult brain, with a peak around ZT12. Expression in the brain is detected in a subset of the clock cells DN3.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cu in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cu
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cu
Deletions and Duplications ( 19 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
3 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919043L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915053I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08EL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08A3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0BF8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
5 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Associates to the CCR4-NOT complex composed of at least Pop2/Caf1, Ccr4, Not1, Rga/Not2, and Not3.
    (UniProt, A8JQX3 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-50

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:11,197,592..11,208,633 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    86D7-86D7
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP3340EP3340 and P{PZ}tho1&P{PZ}l(3)0462905275
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    3-50.0

    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (672)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (35)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: CG4796 nocturin

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: cu nocturnin

      Source for merge of: nocturin CG4782

      Additional comments

      Annotations CG4782 and CG4796 merged as CG31299 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      Source for identity of CG4796 nocturin was sequence comparison ( date:020814 ).

      Other Comments
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      Morgan, 15th Dec. 1915.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (103)