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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sdt
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
stardust
Annotation Symbol
CG32717
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261873
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Guanylate kinase (2.7.4.8)
Gene Snapshot
stardust (sdt) encodes membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein involved in the maintenance of apico-basal cell polarity and the organization of zonula adherens. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
Std, Pals1, BP1063
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,178,549..8,240,474 [+]
Recombination map
1-22
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
Predictions / Assertions
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + GMP = ADP + GDP (2.7.4.8)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NUCLEOTIDE KINASES -
Nucleotide kinases catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a nucleotide substrate.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sdt: stardust
Embryonic lethal. Hypoderm almost totally absent; only small remains of cuticle found. sdt+ function not required in female germline (Wieschaus and Noell, 1986, Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 63-73).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein - codes for a regulatory component of the subapical complex of cellular junctions - crucial in the control of epithelial cell polarity and the organization of zonula adherens
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
14
Number of Unique Polypeptides
12

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\sdt or the JBrowse view of Dmel\sdt for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089978
6828
1292
FBtr0089975
3838
879
FBtr0089974
6490
1367
FBtr0100375
4482
859
FBtr0100376
8462
2020
FBtr0111034
4017
934
FBtr0308217
5214
1269
FBtr0308218
6406
1527
FBtr0308219
3790
879
FBtr0308220
7745
1941
FBtr0333720
9152
1901
FBtr0333721
5650
1292
FBtr0340141
7220
1606
FBtr0340142
6968
1173
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088916
139.4
1292
7.04
FBpp0088913
95.3
879
7.06
FBpp0088912
148.3
1367
7.06
FBpp0099784
93.9
859
7.20
FBpp0111740
217.8
2020
6.79
FBpp0110333
102.9
934
7.20
FBpp0300537
136.9
1269
7.08
FBpp0300538
165.4
1527
6.99
FBpp0300539
95.3
879
7.06
FBpp0300540
208.7
1941
6.83
FBpp0305869
205.8
1901
6.78
FBpp0305870
139.4
1292
7.04
FBpp0309127
174.5
1606
6.91
FBpp0309128
129.1
1173
6.94
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1292 aa isoforms: sdt-PB, sdt-PN
879 aa isoforms: sdt-PD, sdt-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sdt using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (22 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:par-6; FB:FBgn0026192
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:1927339
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031185
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR031185
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Patj; FB:FBgn0067864
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
In adult eyes, sdt is restricted to the photoreceptor cell stalk membrane, adjacent to the rhabdomere.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Patj; FB:FBgn0067864
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sdt in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 49 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 34 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sdt
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sdt
Deletions and Duplications ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
photoreceptor cell & actin filament & pupa | somatic clone
photoreceptor cell & adherens junction & pupa | somatic clone
zonula adherens & photoreceptor cell & pupa
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
2 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919017I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500P0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03BG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X038C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G065I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-22
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:8,178,549..8,240,474 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
7D17-7D22
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG1583EP1516&P{EP}CG1583EP325 and P{EP}sdtEP1143
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (23)
Genomic Clones (26)
cDNA Clones (103)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: sdt CG1617 CG15341
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: CG12658 sdt
Source for merge of: sdt CG12657
Source for merge of: sdt anon- EST:fe2E6
Source for merge of: sdt CG15340
Source for merge of: sdt BP1063
Additional comments
The release 5.2 annotation CG32717 (which corresponds to sdt) contains sequences corresponding to the release 2 annotation CG12657 (the transcript containing these sequences that was deleted in release 5.1 due to lack of evidence has been reinstated in release 5.2 due to new supporting evidence).
Annotations CG32717, CG15342, CG32716 and CG12657 merged as a single annotation (CG32717, which corresponds to sdt) in release 3.2 of the genome annotation.
Annotations CG12658, CG15340 and CG1617 merged as CG32717 in release 3 of the genome annotation.
"l(1)G0463" may affect "sdt".
Source for identity of sdt CG1617 CG15341 was sequence comparison ( date:011219 ).
Other Comments
RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
sdt is required for the regionalization of apical membrane into stalk membranes and rhabdomeres.
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
sdt provides an essential component of the Subapical complex.
sdt is a partner of crb in the control of epithelial cell polarity in the developing embryo.
sdt interacts with crb to control polarity of epithelia but not neuroblasts.
Loss of cell polarity in the epidermal primordium of sdt mutant embryos is associated with a failure to establish the zonulae adherentes. These junctions fail to develop when an altered polarity is induced by the overexpression of crb. crb and sdt have different functions during the formation of the zonula adherens.
Embryos mutant for arm and sdt baz double mutant embryos have very similar early phenotypes with respect to zonula adherens formation. Results suggest that early stages in the assembly of the zonula adherens are critical for the stability of the polarised blastoderm epithelium.
crb and sdt are required for the third step in zonula adherens formation. The marginal zone of the apical membrane may contain a crb- and sdt-dependent retention mechanism for adherens junction material that facilitates zonula adherens formation.
crb and sdt encode critical components of a pathway that acts at the apical pole of epithelial cells to control their cytoarchitecture. Mosaic experiments suggest that sdt though not crb is required cell autonomously. Double mutant analysis suggests that sdt acts downstream of and is activated by crb.
Zygotically active locus involved in the terminal developmental program in the embryo.
A screen for X-linked genes that affect embryo morphology revealed sdt.
sdt mutants display almost total absence of hypoderm, small patches of cuticle remain.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 127 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (24)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BP1063
CG12658
CG15340
CG15342
CG1617
anon-EST:fe2E6
l(1)7Ef
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0243505
  • FBgn0040927
  • FBgn0052717
  • FBgn0030024
  • FBgn0030023
  • FBgn0030022
  • FBgn0030021
  • FBgn0030020
  • FBgn0025216
  • FBgn0001465
  • FBgn0003349
  • FBgn0052716
  • FBgn0030019
  • FBgn0082843
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (238)