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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\vnd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
ventral nervous system defective
Annotation Symbol
CG6172
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261930
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
ventral nervous system defective (vnd) encodes a Nk2-class homeodomain transcription factor that acts in a context-dependent manner as an activator or repressor. It has roles in neuroectoderm patterning, formation and specification of ventral neuroblasts and proper development of their cell lineages. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Also Known As
NK-2, vnd/NK-2, NK2, EC6, EG:118B3.1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:582,121..598,151 [+]
Recombination map
1-0
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NK-2 homeobox family. (P22808)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NK-LIKE HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
NK-like (NKL) homeobox transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. NKL transcription factors are homeobox genes closely related to Hox-like genes, a number of which are found in the NK cluster. Many of the NKL members contain an Engrailed Homology 1 (EH1) motif. (Adapted from FBrf0232555 and PMID:22094586).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Probable transcriptional regulator involved in the regulation of the proneural AS-C genes and the neurogenic genes of the enhancer of split complex. Could specifically activate proneural genes in the ventral-most neuroectoderm.
(UniProt, P22808)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
NK2 (M. Nirenberg)
NK2 is a homeobox gene whose expression starts at the blastoderm stage during cell membrane formation (2.5-3.25-hour embryos) in the region that gives rise to the ventral nervous system. NK2 transcripts detected in the ventral nervous system at later stages of embryonic development. NK2 transcripts also found in the midgut starting at 12 hours of embryonic development and thereafter during embryonic development. NK2 mRNA also found in larvae and pupae but the abundance of the mRNA is lower than that of embryos. NK2 mRNA is expressed in the central nervous system of the adult.
vnd: ventral nervous system defective
Late embryonic lethal. Ventral nervous system disorganized and not condensed. Mutants have fewer cells in the CNS; pattern of neuronal connections damaged (Jimenez and Campos-Ortega, 1987).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
transcription factor - homeodomain - NK2 class - required for the formation of a subset of segmental neuroblasts, and possibly as a neuroectodermal committment gene - upstream of proneural complex - required for specification of the tritocerebrum in embryonic brain development
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\vnd or the JBrowse view of Dmel\vnd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070110
3033
723
FBtr0110929
3412
577
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070105
76.4
723
7.45
FBpp0110229
61.4
577
6.97
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\vnd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000678271
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
ventral ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
The two vnd transcript isoforms have different transcription profiles on northern blots. vnd-RA is expressed from 3h of embryogenesis and levels decline in larvae and adults. vnd-RB is not observed in embryos and is present at higher levels than vnd-RA at later stages. In adults, vnd-RB is detected in both head and body by RT-PCR while vnd-RA is only detected in heads. vnd transcripts are detected in the adult gut, retina, and lamina by in situ hybridization. While vnd-RA is detected in both retina and lamina, vnd-RB is only detected in the lamina. In third instar larvae, vnd-RA but not vnd-RB transcripts are detected in CNS cells and they are only detected in neuroblasts on the ventral surface of the ventral ganglion.
vnd transcript expression during neuroblast formation is described. After S1 neuroblast delamination at stage 8, a two-cell-wide stripe in the ventral-most neurectoderm continues to express vnd. After S2 neuroblast delamination at stage 9, and at stage 11, vnd expression is restricted to a single-cell-wide row in the ventral-most neurectoderm. In the neuroblast layer, in addition to all ventral neuroblasts, vnd is also detected in three intermediate S2 neuroblasts (NB1-2, NB6-2, NB7-2) located in the posterior compartment of the hemisegment. vnd expression is also detected in neural progeny underlying vnd-positive neuroblasts.
Expression of vnd is first observed in the blastoderm embryo as two longitudinal stripes that flank the prospective mesoderm. In stage 6, a rough pair-rule modulation is seen in the pattern. During stages 7-8, the two stripes fuse at the ventral midline to form the mesectoderm and the ventral-most part of the neurectoderm. During stage 10, the width of the stripes in the neurectoderm decreases and gaps of two or three nonexpressing cells appears with segmental periodicity. In early stage 11, expression is detected mainly in the medial neuroblasts and their progeny and in small clusters of lateral neural cells. During stage 13, CNS expression becomes restricted to stripes of cells perpendicular to the anterior-posterior axis. Transcripts are also detected in the anterior and posterior midgut. In stage 16, expression is lower in the CNS and restricted to discrete cell clusters and persists in the midgut.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
vnd protein is detected in larval and adult gut by immunostaining. vnd-PB protein is detected in larval eye disc posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and in adult photoreceptors in the retina and in the lamina. vnd-PA was not detected in the adult fly brain.
Expression of vnd at stage 9 in the procephalic neurectoderm is broad in the ventral region of the antennal, intercalary and ocular segments. As develop proceeds the pattern becomes more restricted and refined. The pattern of neuroblasts arising from the vnd expressing neurectoderm that also express vnd are primarily ventral and display a dynamic pattern of vnd expression.
Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: tritocerebrum - v2-5; deuterocerebrum - d5, v2, v4, v8; protocerebrum - ad4, cv1-9, pv1-3
vnd protein is first detected in blastoderm embryos, in bilateral stripes that will give rise to the ventral column of the CNS. At stage 8, nuclei of ventral midline cells, as well as bilateral ventral column neurectoderm and neuroblasts express vnd protein. Ventral midline expression disappears at stage 9, but ventral column neurectoderm and neuroblast expression remains high. At stage 11, vnd protein is detected in a complex pattern in some of the neuronal progeny of the ventral column neuroblasts; expression is detected in the pCC interneuron, but not in the sibling aCC motorneuron. In addition to expression in some neurons derived from ventral column neuroblasts, vnd protein expression is also detected in dorsally located neurons that may derive from intermediate or dorsal column neuroblasts that do not express vnd.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{vnd.348-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vnd.748-lacZ}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{vnd-lacZ.1.7}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\vnd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 37 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of vnd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of vnd
Deletions and Duplications ( 38 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (15)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919096O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091505H5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0BFL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09ZR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LZ2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (9)
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:582,121..598,151 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1B10-1B10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452 and P{EP}DreddEP1412&P{EP}Suv4-20EP1216a
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1C1-1C5
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (11)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of
            Source for identity of: vnd CG6172
            Source for database merge of
            Source for merge of: vnd HDC16822
            Additional comments
            Other Comments
            vnd represses ind and Dr expression.
            Most ventral neuroblasts do not form in vnd null mutant embryos, and those that do develop intermediate-like fates and not ventral fates. Ectopic vnd expression can promote ventral-like fates in intermediate and dorsal neuroblasts of the embryo.
            vnd is required for the formation of early ventral neuroblasts in the embryo.
            vnd is necessary and sufficient to induce ventral fates and repress intermediate fates in the embryonic central nervous system.
            The primary target genes of Egfr are pnt, vnd and Fas3, these are induced in different ectodermal domains.
            rho is not required for early expression of vnd in mesectodermal or ventral ectodermal cells.
            Expression analysis in various mutant backgrounds suggests that vnd receives and integrates information from ventral-dorsal and anterior-posterior gradients of gene regulators and that ventral, dorsal, anterior and posterior boundaries of each cluster of neuroectodermal cells that express vnd are determined independently.
            The gene products of ac, sc and l(1)sc together with vnd act synergistically to specify the neuroectodermal E(spl) and HLHm5 expression.
            vnd controls neuroblast formation, in part, through its regulation of the proneural genes of the ac-sc complex. vnd controls proneural gene expression at two distinct steps during neuroblast formation through separable regulatory regions.
            The secondary structure of the vnd homeodomain, in both free and DNA bound states, is determined in solution using 2 and 3 dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
            The presence of ena mutations did not compensate for the lethal effects of mutations in elav or vnd : genes important for neural development.
            Embryos lacking vnd exhibit defective patterns in neuroblasts.
            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 39 )
            Sequence Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
            Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
            Linkouts
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
            Reported As
            Symbol Synonym
            HDC16822
            l(1)EA142
            l(1)EC6
            l(1)GA100
            l(1)GA122
            l(1)RC24
            l(1)VA208
            l(1)VE769
            vnd
            (Otsuki and Brand, 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Khajouei and Sinha, 2018, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Reichert, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Jussen et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Bier and De Robertis, 2015, Kim et al., 2015, O'Connell and Reeves, 2015, Samee et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Cantera et al., 2014, Rembold et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Garcia et al., 2013, Li and Gilmour, 2013, Saunders et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Haskel-Ittah et al., 2012, Helman et al., 2012, Reeves et al., 2012, Zhou et al., 2012, Garcia and Stathopoulos, 2011, Helman et al., 2011, Lott et al., 2011, Lynch and Roth, 2011, Mrinal et al., 2011, Ozdemir et al., 2011, Stepchenko et al., 2011, Weake et al., 2011, Meyer et al., 2010, Seibert and Urbach, 2010, Sousa-Neves and Rosas, 2010, Yoo, 2010, Birkholz et al., 2009, Boettiger and Levine, 2009, Cande et al., 2009, Fontenele et al., 2009, Kang et al., 2009, Liberman et al., 2009, Ruden et al., 2009, Seibert et al., 2009, Von Ohlen and Moses, 2009, Von Ohlen et al., 2009, Beaver et al., 2008, Fu and Levine, 2008, Ishihara and Shibata, 2008, Ivanov et al., 2008, Kwong et al., 2008, Seibert et al., 2008, Chintapalli et al., 2007, Halfon and Arnosti, 2007, Isogai et al., 2007, Orian et al., 2007, Seibert et al., 2007, Sharma and Nirenberg, 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Uhler et al., 2007, Urbach, 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Zinzen and Papatsenko, 2007, Biemar et al., 2006, Carneiro et al., 2006, Chanut, 2006, Garces and Thor, 2006, Mizutani et al., 2006, Sprecher et al., 2006, Urbach et al., 2006, Zinzen et al., 2006, Copley, 2005, Hoskins et al., 2005, Stathopoulos and Levine, 2005, Yu et al., 2005, Cheesman et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Markstein et al., 2004, Ronshaugen and Levine, 2004, Cowden and Levine, 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, La Penna et al., 2000)
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
            • FBgn0003986
            • FBgn0002942
            • FBgn0084188
            Datasets (0)
            Study focus (0)
            Experimental Role
            Project
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