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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mi-2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Mi-2
Annotation Symbol
CG8103
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0262519
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Adenosinetriphosphatase (3.6.1.3)
Gene Snapshot
Mi-2 (Mi-2) encodes a nuclear ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler of the CHD family. It associates with active chromatin and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move nucleosomes along DNA. It is required for repression of cell type-specific genes, full activation of heat shock genes and regulates higher order chromatin structure of polytene chromosomes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
dMi-2, Pha, dMi2, l(3)A154.3M3, PHD-containing ATPase
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:19,882,051..19,910,215 [-]
Recombination map
3-46
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. (O97159)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + H(2)O = ADP + phosphate (3.6.1.3)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER RING DOMAIN UBIQUITIN LIGASES -
The RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domain co-ordinates two Zn2+ ions via conserved Cys and His residues. Most proteins which contain a RING finger are assumed to be ubiquitin (E3) ligases. The RING finger binds ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2) and promotes direct transfer of ubiquitin to the target protein. (Adapted from FBrf0215242 and PMID:19489725).
CHROMODOMAIN HELICASES -
The chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family is defined by the presence of tandem N-terminal chromodomains and an SNF2-like ATPase domain. These ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers are usually components of remodelling complexes. (Adapted from FBrf0228973 and FBrf0228925).
NUCLEOSOME REMODELING DEACETYLASE COMPLEX -
The nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex couples chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation to mediate transcriptional repression. (Adapted from FBrf0228973 and FBrf0228920).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Vital role in development. Protein binds to a portion of Hunchback (HB) protein that is critical for repression of bithorax complex (BXC) genes. May also function in polycomb group (PcG) repression of Hox genes.
(UniProt, O97159)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
ATP dependent DNA helicase - Zinc finger, CHD family - associates with active chromatin and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move nucleosomes along DNA - required for repression of cell type-specific genes and full activation of heat shock genes - regulates higher order chromatin structure of polytene chromosomes.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Mi-2 or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mi-2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.53
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074919
6416
1982
FBtr0100394
6486
1983
FBtr0302046
6483
1982
FBtr0332152
6424
1973
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.475 (compiled cDNA)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074688
224.2
1982
5.33
FBpp0099808
224.3
1983
5.33
FBpp0291256
224.2
1982
5.33
FBpp0304462
223.1
1973
5.48
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1982 aa isoforms: Mi-2-PA, Mi-2-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mi-2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (24 terms)
Molecular Function (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence model
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P05084
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Mi-2 transcript is uniform in preblastoderm embryos.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunodetection (other than il)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Mi-2 protein is detected in the first 9 hours of embryonic development and then levels drop off sharply.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mi-2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 58 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Mi-2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Mi-2
Deletions and Duplications ( 29 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (4)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
3 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900FF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00AS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00A9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00G4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
5 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-46
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:19,882,051..19,910,215 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
76D3-76D4
Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
76D3-76D4
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
76D-76D
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
76D1-76D2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (36)
Genomic Clones (21)
cDNA Clones (91)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: Mi-2 l(3)L1243
Additional comments
Other Comments
DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for Mi-2 protein in S2 cells; GEO accession number GSE32404.
dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. RNAi of Mi-2 results in reduced arborization of ddaD and ddaE neurons, defects in muscle and defects in dendrite morphogenesis.
ATPase activity, nucleosome binding and nucleosome mobilization activities are all modulated by phosphorylation of Mi-2.
The Mi-2 chromodomains are DNA binding modules.
The Mi-2 chromodomains are important for ATP-dependent nucleosome mobilisation.
Su(Tpl) is located in the largest intron of Mi-2, on the same strand. Overall orientation not stated: Mi-2+ Su(Tpl)+ Mi-2+
It is proposed that Mi-2 defines a novel family of chromatin remodelling complex that is mechanistically distinct from both Iswi and SWI/SNF.
GenBank AF007780; AAB87384 and SPTREMBL:016102 are chimeric between Chd3 and Mi-2, which are distinct genes.
Isolated as a protein that interacts with hb protein in a yeast two-hybrid assay.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Named 'Mi-2' after the human ortholog.
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 68 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (29)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
l(3)01058
l(3)A154.3M3
l(3)j3D4
Name Synonyms
Mi-2
Mi-2 ortholog
PHD-containing ATPase
hb-interacting protein 76
lethal (3) L1243
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0013591
  • FBgn0010735
  • FBgn0011790
  • FBgn0028080
  • FBgn0028245
  • FBgn0024536
Datasets (2)
Study focus (2)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
  • bait_protein
Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
  • bait_protein
Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
References (206)