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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\psq
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pipsqueak
Annotation Symbol
CG2368
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263102
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
pipsqueak (psq) encodes a transcription factor that regulates chromatin silencing. It mediates the interaction of Polycomb group (Pc-G) members with Pc-G response elements. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-13]
Also Known As
eyeful, rumpf, psk, zep, BTB-V
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:10,557,888..10,617,280 [+]
Recombination map
2-62
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
POLYCOMB GROUP RECRUITERS/DNA-BINDING PROTEINS -
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators, best characterized for the repression of Hox gene expression. In Drosophila, PcG proteins repress their target genes by binding to specific DNA elements called Polycomb Response Elements (PREs). PcG DNA binding proteins contribute to the recruitment of Polycomb complexes to PREs. (Adapted from FBrf0228921).
PIPSQUEAK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Pipsqueak transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. These family members are characterized by a heix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain called Psq domain, which consists of four tandem repeats of a conserved 50-amino acid sequence, the Psq motif. (Adapted from FBrf0148954 and FBrf0105267).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
BTB domain & Psq motif transcription factor that targets a Polycomb group protein complex to Polycomb response elements - epigenetic silencers Lola and Pipsqueak collaborate with Notch to promote malignant tumours by Rb silencing
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
12
Number of Unique Polypeptides
6

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\psq or the JBrowse view of Dmel\psq for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088276
5313
1046
FBtr0088275
5367
1064
FBtr0088282
5210
1064
FBtr0088278
4725
645
FBtr0088277
4464
645
FBtr0088279
4780
645
FBtr0088280
4513
645
FBtr0088281
4550
645
FBtr0100606
4889
639
FBtr0100607
4640
639
FBtr0330607
6336
1123
FBtr0346958
6336
1043
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
6.0, 5.1, 4.4 (northern blot)
5.7, 5.0, >7.0 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087369
113.0
1046
6.75
FBpp0087368
115.0
1064
6.73
FBpp0089330
115.0
1064
6.73
FBpp0087371
70.3
645
6.79
FBpp0087370
70.3
645
6.79
FBpp0087372
70.3
645
6.79
FBpp0087373
70.3
645
6.79
FBpp0087374
70.3
645
6.79
FBpp0100066
69.7
639
6.79
FBpp0100067
69.7
639
6.79
FBpp0303457
119.8
1123
6.87
FBpp0312422
112.6
1043
6.75
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

645 aa isoforms: psq-PD, psq-PE, psq-PF, psq-PG, psq-PH
1064 aa isoforms: psq-PB, psq-PC
639 aa isoforms: psq-PJ, psq-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1065 (aa); 150 (kD observed)
1085, 666, 660, 535 (aa)
Comments
Downstream from the BTB (or POZ) domain, the psq+P1065 protein contains 34 alternating histidine residues, (HX)n,which may act as an additional protein-protein interaction domain. The psq protein also contains a 52-55 amino acid motif tandemly repated four times at the C terminus, which the authors call "the psq motif". The function of the evolutionarily conserved psq motif is unknown. The putative product of the psq+R4.4 transcript lacks both the BTB and (HX)n motifs, but still posesses the psq motifs.
The BTB-domain is predicted for the products of the class A transcripts (psq+R7.0A1 and psq+R7.0A2) only, psq+P1085 and psq+P535.
one of several products generated by alternative splicing
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\psq using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-2 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data
psq transcripts are first distributed uniformly in the embryo. At stage 5 transcript accumulation is observed dorsally between 20 and 70% egg length. In addition to a low level uniform expression, high levels of psq transcripts are found through stage 7/8 in the dorso-anterior domain and in the amnioserosa (detected with an intronic probe). In later stages, expression is detected in the mandibular, maxillary, and labial lobes.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
psq protein localizes to the nucleus.
The psq protein localizes to the nuclei of somatic and germ cells during oogenesis.
In the eye-antennal disc psq protein localizes to ommatidial precluster cells, with highest levels in R3 and R4. In the larval wing disc, in addition to the overall low expression, there is a region of high psq protein expression in the wing blade primordium.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\psq in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 86 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of psq
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of psq
Deletions and Duplications ( 13 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult head & macrochaeta
adult thorax & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919059L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150291 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0DEQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0DCI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0LAU )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (22)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
 
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-62
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:10,557,888..10,617,280 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
47A13-47B1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}lola00349&P{EP}lolaEP952 and P{lacW}l(2)k00909k00909&P{EP}EP2619EP2619
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
47B1-47B4
47A10-47A12
47B-47B
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47A10-47A12
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47B1-47B4
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
47A-47A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (45)
Genomic Clones (26)
cDNA Clones (150)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for identity of: psq CG2368
Source for database merge of
Source for merge of: psq zep
Source for merge of: psq BtbV
Source for merge of: psq rum
Additional comments
Source for merge of psq BtbV was sequence comparison ( date:000202 ).
Other Comments
RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.
Genetic interaction data suggest that psq may have a role in control of homeotic gene activity.
Identification: as a suppressor of the small eye phenotype caused by overexpression of fng in the eye.
'eyeful' mutant interacts genetically with N and fng though it is not yet clear whether 'eyeful' corresponds to lola or psq.
psq has been cloned and molecularly characterised. psq is a complex gene encoding multiple differentially spliced transcripts and several protein isoforms.
P{PZ} insertion within an intron causes an aberrant splicing and transcription termination event due to l(3)87Df sequences flanking the HindIII ry fragment within the P{PZ} element. The aberrant splicing event is entirely responsible for the mutant phenotype.
High level expression of psq is svp-dependent and thus psq might be acting downstream of svp for the development of photoreceptor cells 3 and 4. psq is also required for the development of other adult structures.
The psq gene is a member of the posterior group of genes and is required for early stages of oogenesis, acting at least partly through vas.
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 130 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
Linkouts
ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (22)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
BtbV
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0069087
  • FBgn0004399
  • FBgn0012047
  • FBgn0045853
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (199)