General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cac
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
cacophony
Annotation Symbol
CG43368
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263111
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Cacophony (Cac) is the primary structural subunit of a voltage-gated calcium channel, which is located at presynaptic active zones. It functions in evoked neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. Cac contributes to male courtship behavior and a wide range of neurophysiological processes. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-23]
Also Known As
Dmca1A, nbA, l(1)L13, 13, nonB
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,931,280..11,985,087 [-]
Recombination map
1-37
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the calcium channel alpha-1 subunit (TC 1.A.1.11) family. (P91645)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNEL SUBUNITS -
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CACN) allow the influx of extracellular Ca2+ in response to plasma membrane depolarization. CACNs are hetero-oligomeric assemblies of a pore-forming α1 subunit plus other structural and accessory subunits. (Adapted from FBrf0218524 and PMID:21746798).
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death (By similarity). Probably encodes a dihydropyridine-insensitive current. Vital for survival to adulthood.
(UniProt, P91645)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
cac: cacophony (J.C. Hall)
Males court abnormally with poor mating success and aberrant courtship song, which includes pulses of tone that are polycyclic, rather than monocyclic or tricyclic, within wild-type pulses and have increased amplitude. Some cac pulses, however, are quasi-normal in their cycle numbers (Wheeler et al., 1989); these, as well as many of the polycyclic pulses, have essentially normal intra-pulse frequencies; other cac pulses exhibit anomalous modulations, and these show multiple peaks in the intra-pulse spectra, unlike wild type. Mating success of wingless mutant males is still worse than that of wingless wild-type males, which is correlated with genetic separability of song abnormalities from deficit in mating performance. Female courtship appears to be unaffected by cac; but general locomotor activity of males or females is subnormal. cac is recessive for generally abnormal behavior and for courtship song defects in tra/tra flies (Kulkarni, Hall, and Schilcher).
nbA: night blind A (J.C. Hall)
Higher than normal light-intensity thresholds needed for optomotor or phototactic responses (Heisenberg and Gotz, 1975). More specifically, high-acuity optomotor responses (ability to respond to relatively narrow moving stripes) relatively normal, but high-sensitivity flies (ability to respond to moving stimuli in dim light conditions) are impaired, hence, a "night-blind" phenotype (Heisenberg). In "slow phototaxis/Y-tube" tests (using ordinary white fluorescent light), mutant adults were extremely subnormal and in fact preferred the dark-arm of the Y (Kulkarni and Hall, 1987). Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram reduced in amplitude, possibly absent (Heisenberg, 1979; Homyk and Pye, 1989). Weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test (Bulthoff, 1982). nbA mutation may define an essential gene, because nbA3/l(1)11Aa1 heterozygotes lack ERG transients (Homyk and Pye) and are severely defective in phototaxis (Kulkarni and Hall, 1987).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
18
Number of Unique Polypeptides
17

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\cac or the JBrowse view of Dmel\cac for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 6.25
Triple stop-codon suppression (UAG, UGA, UAG) postulated; FBrf0234051, FlyBase analysis.
gene_with_stop_codon_read_through ; SO:0000697
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Gene model reviewed during 5.41
Gene model reviewed during 5.39
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0307318
8471
1848
FBtr0307321
8471
1848
FBtr0307317
8471
1848
FBtr0307319
8471
1848
FBtr0307322
8490
1851
FBtr0307320
10638
1851
FBtr0307313
8474
1849
FBtr0307314
8474
1849
FBtr0307315
10902
1850
FBtr0307316
8477
1850
FBtr0307323
8705
1926
FBtr0307324
8276
1783
FBtr0307325
10251
1954
FBtr0308609
8480
1851
FBtr0332391
8395
1869
FBtr0474239
8471
1852
FBtr0474240
8471
1865
FBtr0474241
8471
2110
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0298319
212.1
1848
8.13
FBpp0298322
212.2
1848
8.13
FBpp0298318
212.1
1848
8.07
FBpp0298320
212.2
1848
8.07
FBpp0298323
212.5
1851
8.01
FBpp0298321
212.6
1851
7.95
FBpp0298314
212.3
1849
8.01
FBpp0298315
212.2
1849
8.07
FBpp0298316
212.4
1850
8.07
FBpp0298317
212.4
1850
8.01
FBpp0298324
220.6
1926
8.33
FBpp0298325
204.9
1783
7.60
FBpp0298326
223.5
1954
8.44
FBpp0300833
212.5
1851
8.01
FBpp0304665
214.7
1869
7.89
FBpp0423192
212.6
1852
8.13
FBpp0423193
214.2
1865
8.29
FBpp0423194
242.4
2110
8.06
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1851 aa isoforms: cac-PE, cac-PO
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
1851 (aa); 212 (kD predicted)
Comments
Putative phenylalkylamine binding site predicted.
External Data
Domain
Each of the four internal repeats contains five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (S1, S2, S3, S5, S6) and one positively charged transmembrane segment (S4). S4 segments probably represent the voltage-sensor and are characterized by a series of positively charged amino acids at every third position.
(UniProt, P91645)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cac using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (32 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002048
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295314
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (23 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (20 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:comt; FB:FBgn0000346
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295314
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295293
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000004141
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
epitope tag
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
cac protein is localized to the presynaptic active zone in both larval and adult neuromuscular junctions.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cac in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 63 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of cac
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
      Yes
        0
        --
          0
          Yes
            0
            Yes
              0
              --
                0
                --
                  0
                  Yes
                  Other relevant insertions
                  Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
                  For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
                  Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cac
                  Allele of cac
                  Mutagen
                  Associated Transgenic Construct
                  Stocks
                  Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cac
                  Deletions and Duplications ( 23 )
                  Summary of Phenotypes
                  For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
                  Lethality
                  Allele
                  Other Phenotypes
                  Allele
                  Phenotype manifest in
                  Allele
                  dorsal medial muscle & synapse
                  dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with cacL13)
                  dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with cacTS2)
                  dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with Df(1)KA10)
                  dorsal medial muscle & synapse | conditional ts
                  intracoxal lateral levator muscle & synapse | conditional ts
                  Orthologs
                  Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                  Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
                  Species\Gene Symbol
                  Score
                  Best Score
                  Best Reverse Score
                  Alignment
                  Complementation?
                  Transgene?
                  11 of 15
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  10 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                   
                  10 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                  Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
                  Species\Gene Symbol
                  Score
                  Best Score
                  Best Reverse Score
                  Alignment
                  Complementation?
                  Transgene?
                  10 of 15
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  9 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  7 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
                  9 of 13
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  8 of 13
                  No
                  Yes
                  7 of 13
                  No
                  Yes
                  2 of 13
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 13
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 13
                  No
                  Yes
                  1 of 13
                  No
                  No
                  Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
                  6 of 12
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  4 of 12
                  No
                  Yes
                  1 of 12
                  No
                  Yes
                  1 of 12
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 12
                  No
                  No
                  Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (15)
                  11 of 15
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  11 of 15
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  10 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  8 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  7 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  5 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  2 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  Yes
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
                  15 of 15
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  3 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  1 of 15
                  No
                  No
                  Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
                  1 of 9
                  Yes
                  Yes
                  Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
                  6 of 15
                  Yes
                  No
                  Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
                  4 of 12
                  Yes
                  No
                  Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900DL )
                  Organism
                  Common Name
                  Gene
                  AAA Syntenic Ortholog
                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                  Drosophila melanogaster
                  fruit fly
                  Drosophila suzukii
                  Spotted wing Drosophila
                  Drosophila simulans
                  Drosophila sechellia
                  Drosophila yakuba
                  Drosophila ananassae
                  Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
                  Drosophila persimilis
                  Drosophila willistoni
                  Drosophila virilis
                  Drosophila grimshawi
                  Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915008I )
                  Organism
                  Common Name
                  Gene
                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                  Musca domestica
                  House fly
                  Musca domestica
                  House fly
                  Glossina morsitans
                  Tsetse fly
                  Glossina morsitans
                  Tsetse fly
                  Lucilia cuprina
                  Australian sheep blowfly
                  Mayetiola destructor
                  Hessian fly
                  Aedes aegypti
                  Yellow fever mosquito
                  Aedes aegypti
                  Yellow fever mosquito
                  Anopheles darlingi
                  American malaria mosquito
                  Anopheles darlingi
                  American malaria mosquito
                  Anopheles gambiae
                  Malaria mosquito
                  Anopheles gambiae
                  Malaria mosquito
                  Culex quinquefasciatus
                  Southern house mosquito
                  Culex quinquefasciatus
                  Southern house mosquito
                  Culex quinquefasciatus
                  Southern house mosquito
                  Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01GP )
                  Organism
                  Common Name
                  Gene
                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                  Bombyx mori
                  Silkmoth
                  Bombyx mori
                  Silkmoth
                  Bombyx mori
                  Silkmoth
                  Danaus plexippus
                  Monarch butterfly
                  Danaus plexippus
                  Monarch butterfly
                  Danaus plexippus
                  Monarch butterfly
                  Danaus plexippus
                  Monarch butterfly
                  Heliconius melpomene
                  Postman butterfly
                  Heliconius melpomene
                  Postman butterfly
                  Heliconius melpomene
                  Postman butterfly
                  Apis florea
                  Little honeybee
                  Apis florea
                  Little honeybee
                  Apis mellifera
                  Western honey bee
                  Apis mellifera
                  Western honey bee
                  Apis mellifera
                  Western honey bee
                  Apis mellifera
                  Western honey bee
                  Bombus impatiens
                  Common eastern bumble bee
                  Bombus impatiens
                  Common eastern bumble bee
                  Bombus terrestris
                  Buff-tailed bumblebee
                  Bombus terrestris
                  Buff-tailed bumblebee
                  Linepithema humile
                  Argentine ant
                  Linepithema humile
                  Argentine ant
                  Linepithema humile
                  Argentine ant
                  Linepithema humile
                  Argentine ant
                  Linepithema humile
                  Argentine ant
                  Megachile rotundata
                  Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                  Megachile rotundata
                  Alfalfa leafcutting bee
                  Nasonia vitripennis
                  Parasitic wasp
                  Nasonia vitripennis
                  Parasitic wasp
                  Dendroctonus ponderosae
                  Mountain pine beetle
                  Dendroctonus ponderosae
                  Mountain pine beetle
                  Tribolium castaneum
                  Red flour beetle
                  Tribolium castaneum
                  Red flour beetle
                  Tribolium castaneum
                  Red flour beetle
                  Pediculus humanus
                  Human body louse
                  Pediculus humanus
                  Human body louse
                  Rhodnius prolixus
                  Kissing bug
                  Cimex lectularius
                  Bed bug
                  Cimex lectularius
                  Bed bug
                  Cimex lectularius
                  Bed bug
                  Acyrthosiphon pisum
                  Pea aphid
                  Acyrthosiphon pisum
                  Pea aphid
                  Zootermopsis nevadensis
                  Nevada dampwood termite
                  Zootermopsis nevadensis
                  Nevada dampwood termite
                  Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04RT )
                  Organism
                  Common Name
                  Gene
                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                  Strigamia maritima
                  European centipede
                  Strigamia maritima
                  European centipede
                  Strigamia maritima
                  European centipede
                  Strigamia maritima
                  European centipede
                  Ixodes scapularis
                  Black-legged tick
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Stegodyphus mimosarum
                  African social velvet spider
                  Tetranychus urticae
                  Two-spotted spider mite
                  Tetranychus urticae
                  Two-spotted spider mite
                  Tetranychus urticae
                  Two-spotted spider mite
                  Daphnia pulex
                  Water flea
                  Daphnia pulex
                  Water flea
                  Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0TKO )
                  Organism
                  Common Name
                  Gene
                  Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
                  Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                  Purple sea urchin
                  Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
                  Purple sea urchin
                  Ciona intestinalis
                  Vase tunicate
                  Ciona intestinalis
                  Vase tunicate
                  Gallus gallus
                  Domestic chicken
                  Gallus gallus
                  Domestic chicken
                  Gallus gallus
                  Domestic chicken
                  Gallus gallus
                  Domestic chicken
                  Gallus gallus
                  Domestic chicken
                  Human Disease Model Data
                  FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
                  Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
                  Download
                  Models ( 2 )
                  Allele
                  Disease
                  Evidence
                  References
                  in combination with cacF
                  in combination with cacJ
                  in combination with cacF
                  in combination with cacJ
                  Interactions ( 3 )
                  Comments ( 0 )
                   
                  Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
                  Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
                  Functional Complementation Data
                  Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
                  Interactions
                  Summary of Physical Interactions
                  esyN Network Diagram
                  Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
                  Select Layout:
                  Legend:
                  Protein
                  RNA
                  Selected Interactor(s)
                  Interactions Browser

                  Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
                  protein-protein
                  Interacting group
                  Assay
                  References
                  RNA-protein
                  Interacting group
                  Assay
                  References
                  Summary of Genetic Interactions
                  esyN Network Diagram
                  esyN Network Key:
                  Suppression
                  Enhancement

                  Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
                  Starting gene(s)
                  Interaction type
                  Interacting gene(s)
                  Reference
                  Starting gene(s)
                  Interaction type
                  Interacting gene(s)
                  Reference
                  suppressible
                  External Data
                  Linkouts
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  Pathways
                  Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
                  External Data
                  Linkouts
                  Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
                  Chromosome (arm)
                  X
                  Recombination map
                  1-37
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Sequence location
                  X:11,931,280..11,985,087 [-]
                  FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Evidence for location
                  10F8-11A1
                  Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
                  Cytogenetic map
                  Notes
                  References
                  11A-11A
                  (determined by in situ hybridisation)
                  Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
                  Location
                  Right of (cM)
                  Notes
                  97 of 129 recombinants between m and fw ocurred distal to cac. 5 of 8 recombinants between cac and fw were distal to gd. 2 of 10 gd/fw recombinants were distal to tsg.
                  Stocks and Reagents
                  Stocks (33)
                  Genomic Clones (29)
                  cDNA Clones (42)
                   

                  Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

                  cDNA clones, fully sequences
                  BDGP DGC clones
                  Other clones
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                  For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                  cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                  RNAi and Array Information
                  Linkouts
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  Antibody Information
                  Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                   
                  polyclonal
                  Commercially Available Antibodies
                   
                  Other Information
                  Relationship to Other Genes
                  Source for database identify of
                  Source for identity of: cac CG1522
                  Source for database merge of
                  Source for merge of: cac CG15928
                  Additional comments
                  Annotations CG1522 and CG15928 merged as CG43368 in release 5.36 of the genome annotation.
                  "E(TS2)22" has not been separated from "cacTS2" in meiotic mapping experiments examining more than 1000 recombinant chromosomes. It is either an intragenic mutation in "cac" or is within a closely linked gene.
                  Other Comments
                  Annotation CG15928 restored in release 5.15 of the genome annotation.
                  Hypomorphic mutations in cac result in defects at the mature larval neuromuscular junction; there is a decrease in both synaptic terminal branching and varicosity number. This reduced synapse proliferation is not due to increased synapse retraction. These mutants do not show defects in neuromuscular junction morphology at the late embryonic stage.
                  Annotation CG15928 eliminated in release 3 of the genome annotation, October 2002.
                  The cac gene product, an α1-subunit of the L-type calcium channel, plays a role in epithelial fluid transport, in a distinct calcium entry mechanism mediated by CAP2b, cGMP and thapsigargin.
                  The cac Ca channels mediate multiple, separable biological functions. These correlate in part with transcript diversity generated by alternative splicing.
                  Mutants exhibit defective courtship song.
                  Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram are reduced in amplitude, and possibly absent in mutants. The prolonged depolarization after potential (PDA) is also abnormal.
                  Aberrant intervals between song pulses were observed in cac mutant and cac, nonA double mutant songs.
                  Complementation patterns for cac mutants are complex, tests are carried out in diplo-X individuals transformed into phenotypic males by tra mutants.
                  cac mutants show complex complementation patterns and interactions. Courtship song is polycyclic in cac mutants, yet courtship hums and wing beats are normal suggesting a specific role of 'cac' in the neural program underlying a feature of wing vibrations. In 'slow phototaxis/Y-tube' tests (using ordinary white fluorescent light), mutant adults were extremely subnormal and in fact preferred the dark-arm of the Y.
                  Mutants show weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test.
                  Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram are reduced in amplitude, and possibly absent in mutants.
                  Mutants require higher than normal light-intensity thresholds for optomotor or phototactic responses. More specifically, high-acuity optomotor responses (ability to respond to relatively narrow moving stripes) are relatively normal, but high-sensitivity flies (ability to respond to moving stimuli in dim light conditions) are impaired, hence, a 'night-blind' phenotype.
                  Origin and Etymology
                  Discoverer
                  Etymology
                  Identification
                  External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 120 )
                  Crossreferences
                  NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                  GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                  UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  Linkouts
                  Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
                  DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                  Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                  Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
                  GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                  iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                  Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                  KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                  Synonyms and Secondary IDs (42)
                  Reported As
                  Symbol Synonym
                  Ca-α1A
                  EE171
                  H18
                  H47
                  P18
                  cac
                  (Al-Ramahi et al., 2018, Fulterer et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Oriel and Lasko, 2018, Şentürk and Bellen, 2018, Agrawal et al., 2017, Aw et al., 2017, Fisher et al., 2017, Rohde et al., 2017, Vonhoff and Keshishian, 2017, Yao et al., 2017, Carbone et al., 2016, Engel et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Gupta et al., 2016, Jones et al., 2016, Jungreis et al., 2016, Saras and Tanouye, 2016, Spring et al., 2016, Terada et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Brusich et al., 2015, Casci and Pandey, 2015, Diao et al., 2015, Gaviño et al., 2015, Tian et al., 2015, Wiemerslage and Lee, 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Ford and Davis, 2014, Haelterman et al., 2014, Horiguchi et al., 2014, Inagaki et al., 2014, Iyengar and Wu, 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Westholm et al., 2014, Costa and Stanewsky, 2013, Huang et al., 2013, Kanamori et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Astorga et al., 2012, Felix et al., 2012, Hazelett et al., 2012, Kaushik et al., 2012, Lutas et al., 2012, Müller and Davis, 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Ryglewski et al., 2012, Savva et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Tsubouchi et al., 2012, Ellis and Carney, 2011, Kawasaki et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Yu et al., 2011, Carrillo et al., 2010, Hallermann et al., 2010, Kuromi et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Repnikova et al., 2010, Tsurudome et al., 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Dason et al., 2009, Dickman and Davis, 2009, Frank et al., 2009, Gu et al., 2009, Kawasaki and Ordway, 2009, Kurshan et al., 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Venken et al., 2009, Dickman et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Long et al., 2008, Ly et al., 2008, Worrell and Levine, 2008, Zou et al., 2008, Dietzl et al., 2007, Peng and Wu, 2007, Peng et al., 2007, Frank et al., 2006, Huang et al., 2006, Macleod et al., 2006, Schmid et al., 2006, Gleason, 2005, Ray and Dowse, 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Philipps et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Hall, 2002, Lindsley and Zimm, 1992)
                  l(1)11Aa
                  ldg
                  nonB
                  opm18
                  opm47
                  Name Synonyms
                  Calcium Channel α1 subunit
                  Calcium channel α1 subunit, type A
                  lamina-degeneration
                  lethal(1)11Aa
                  nightblind A
                  no-on-transient B
                  Secondary FlyBase IDs
                  • FBgn0005563
                  • FBgn0000249
                  • FBgn0001518
                  • FBgn0001754
                  • FBgn0002923
                  • FBgn0002958
                  • FBgn0005430
                  • FBgn0020500
                  • FBgn0025106
                  • FBgn0040856
                  Datasets (0)
                  Study focus (0)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project
                  Project Type
                  Title
                  References (279)