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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hk
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Hyperkinetic
Annotation Symbol
CG43388
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263220
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
D-threo-aldose 1-dehydrogenase (1.1.1.122)
Gene Summary
Hyperkinetic (Hk) encodes a beta-subunit of Sh K[+] channels and modulates its channel function. It is important in regulating action potentials in neurons and muscles, and transmitter release. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

lincRNA.975, Dm_X:51771

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-31
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:10233347..10263485
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (12 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P63144
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR023210
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455295
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455295
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005983
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455295
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sh; FB:FBgn0003380
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005983
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002455295
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
A D-threo-aldose + NAD(+) = a D-threo-aldono-1,5-lactone + NADH (1.1.1.122)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Hyperkinetic (Hk) encodes a beta-subunit of Sh K[+] channels and modulates its channel function. It is important in regulating action potentials in neurons and muscles, and transmitter release. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL - BETA SUBUNITS -
Voltage-gated potassium β subunits can associate with and regulate voltage-gated potassium channels. (Adapted from FBrf0224790).
OTHER ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES -
The 'OTHER ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES' group contains aldo-keto reductases that do not fit into any of the other major groupings.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Hk: Hyperkinetic (J.C. Hall)
Isolated as a dominant allele that induces ether-induced leg shaking in flies (Kaplan and Trout, 1969); later, hyperkinetic alleles showed recessive behavior, both in regard to the adult leg shaking phenotype and to the larval electrophysiological phenotype (Stern and Ganetzky, 1989). The vigorous leg shaking of flies can be induced by nitrogen or triethylamine, as well as ether, but not by chloroform (Ganetzky and Wu, 1982, Genetics 100: 597-614); ether also induces rhythmic bursts of impulses in certain cells of the thoracic ganglia of adults (summarized by Ikeda and Kaplan, 1974). The "patch clamp" experiments on neurons from Hk larvae reveals inward currents of unusually high conductance (Sun and Wu, 1985, Neurosci. Abstr. 11: 787). In Hk larvae, the amplitude and duration of the post synaptic response to a brief high frequency nerve stimulation is increased up to the level characteristic of Sh mutants (Stern and Ganetzky, 1989). Shadow stimuli induce jump response, which maps to the head in mosaic experiment (Kaplan, 1979). Hk can overcome heat-induced paralytic effects of parats (i.e. stobe light stimuli to the double mutant elicit jumps). Hk-induced leg shaking suppresseds by napts at its relatively low permissive temperature (Ganetsky and Wu, 1982). Courtship performed by Hk males is abnormal (Burnet, Eastwood, and Connolly, 1974, Behav. Genet. 4: 227-35). Lifespan is shorter than normal and rate of oxygen consumption is greater than normal in Hk (Trout and Kaplan, 1970, Exper. Geront. 5: 83-93). Mutant focus of life-shortening effect maps to ventral anterior part of thorax as does leg shaking (Trout and Kaplan, 1982). Mutant shows weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test (Bulthoff, 1982, Biol. Cybernet 45: 63-7).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

cytoplasmic protein that acts as the β subunit and redox sensor of Shaker voltage-dependent K channels - functional in neural pathway in arousal and circadian rhythms - interacts with Ether go-go channels

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
9
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hk for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 6.01

Multiphase exon postulated: reading frame of first coding exon differs in alternative transcripts.

Double stop-codon suppression (UGA, UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0307876
4046
392
FBtr0307877
3548
547
FBtr0307878
3788
698
FBtr0307879
7021
392
FBtr0307880
3916
374
FBtr0307881
3536
393
FBtr0331336
8450
548
FBtr0331337
3548
596
FBtr0331338
3548
887
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

~9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0300310
44.0
392
8.05
FBpp0300311
59.7
547
6.24
FBpp0300312
78.0
698
8.53
FBpp0300313
44.0
392
8.05
FBpp0300314
42.0
374
8.54
FBpp0300315
44.1
393
7.88
FBpp0303754
59.7
548
6.24
FBpp0303755
64.6
596
5.62
FBpp0303756
95.4
887
7.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

392 aa isoforms: Hk-PD, Hk-PG
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

546 (aa); 60 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hk using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sh; FB:FBgn0003380
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Hk in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Hk
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Hk
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 7 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
10 of 15
No
Yes
2  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (9)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (4)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903VL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915034A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03NQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03KQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0KDN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-31
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    9B4-9B5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}nejEP1149&P{EP}nejEP1179 and P{EP}α-Man-IEP1628&P{EP}α-Man-IEP1307
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    1-30.4 +/- 0.6

    1-30.5

    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (23)
    cDNA Clones (37)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: Hk CG17779

      Source for merge of: Hk CG34319

      Additional comments

      Annotations CG32688 and CG34319 merged as CG43388 in release 5.37 of the genome annotation.

      Annotations CG17779 and CG2287 merged as CG32688 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      Additional γ ray-induced alleles have been isolated by K. Schlimgen on the basis of their failure to complement the leg shaking of Hk1 (FBrf0050361).

      Other Comments

      Duplicate transcripts identified and eliminated during the migration of annotations from the release 5 genome assembly to the release 6 assembly.

      New annotation (CG34319) in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.

      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

      Mutants are hypersensitive to paraquat.

      Immunoprecipitation experiments reveal Hk can associate with eag α subunits.

      Alteration of the rate of aging and life span using Sh and Hk hyperactive mutants shows that the timing of type I Ecol\lacZ2216 expression is independent of metabolic rate.

      Hk β subunit modulates a wide range of the Sh K+ current properties, inducing its amplitude, activation and inactivation, temperature dependence and drug sensitivity. Modulation is thought to occur via hydrophobic interactions, Hk β subunits modulate Sh channel formation in the cytoplasmic pore region.

      Hk encodes a K+ channel β subunit with distinctive effects on Sh channel function and Hk is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily.

      The entire adult temporal pattern of expression of an enhancer trap element, P{lacW}1085, scales to life span in Hk1 and Sh5 mutants.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 180 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      CG2287
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0001203
      • FBgn0030188
      • FBgn0052688
      • FBgn0085348
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (178)