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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hmgcr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
HMG Coenzyme A reductase
Annotation Symbol
CG10367
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263782
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) (1.1.1.34)
Gene Summary
HMG Coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) encodes the rate-controlling enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces isoprenoids. It is required during heart tube formation, molting regulation and primordial germ cell migration. [Date last reviewed: 2019-05-16] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

columbus, clb, l(3)01152, HMGCoAr, HMG-CoA reductase

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:23,733,324..23,750,992 [+]
Recombination map
3-80
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:23733324..23750992
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (15 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000060346
(assigned by GO_Central )
enables NADP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR004554, InterPro:IPR004816
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:hh; FB:FBgn0004644
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:disp; FB:FBgn0029088
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002202, InterPro:IPR009029
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
involved_in gonad development
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000060346
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000060346
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000060347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000060347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:5006
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the HMG-CoA reductase family. (P14773)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP(+) = (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH (1.1.1.34)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
HMG Coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) encodes the rate-controlling enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces isoprenoids. It is required during heart tube formation, molting regulation and primordial germ cell migration. [Date last reviewed: 2019-05-16]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER CH-OH OXIDOREDUCTASES, NAD OR NADP AS ACCEPTOR -
The Other CH-OH oxidoreductases, NAD or NADP as acceptor group, is a collection of oxidoreductases that do not fit into any of the other major CH-OH oxidoreductases, NAD or NADP as acceptor group.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Synthesis of mevalonate for the production of non-sterol isoprenoids, which are essential for growth differentiation. Provides spatial information during embryogenesis to guide migrating primordial germ cells (the pole cells) from the ectoderm to the mesoderm. Also required for association of the pole cells with the gonadal mesoderm.
(UniProt, P14773)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Hmg: Hmg-CoA-reductase
Encodes 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-controlling enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in mammals. In Drosophila melanogaster, the enzyme is not regulated by sterols (Brown, Havel, and Watson, 1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 8512-15; Silberkang, Havel, Friend, McCarthy, and Watson, 1983, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 8503-11); it synthesizes mevalonate for the production of nonsterol isoprenoids which are needed for growth and differentiation. The enzyme is found in cultured Kc and Schneider cells.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

catalyzes the biosynthesis of a mevalonate precursor for isoprenoids - functions in the hedgehog signaling pathway, implicated in the production of a signal by the somatic gonadal precursor cells that attracts migrating germ cells

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hmgcr for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0084450
3818
920
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.0, 3.2 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083842
98.3
920
6.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

916 (aa); 98 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hmgcr using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Hmgcr transcripts are expressed in a dynamic pattern in the embryo. They are expressed in the target tissue of the primordial germ cells (PGCs) which is the gonadal mesoderm. Expression in the mesoderm is initially broad and then is restricted to a segmental pattern. This occurs at the stage when the PGCs migrate from the endoderm to the mesoderm. Mesodermal expression of Hmgcr is limited to a cluster of cells in each of parasegments 10, 11, and 12 at the location of the gonadal mesoderm. The three clusters of Hmgcr-expressing cells join to form a continuous band, which is tightly associated with the PGCs. Expression is also observed in the dorsal vessel, in regions of the foregut, midgut, and hindgut, in clusters of cells along the ventral midline, and in the salivary gland.

The 4.0kb Hmgcr transcript is detected at all developmental stages with the highest levels in late embryos.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Hmgcr is expressed in the fat body in flies younger than 4 days. In flies older than 5 days, no Hmgcr expression is detectable.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Hmgcr.A-Gal4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{Hmgcr.B-Gal4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Hmgcr in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Hmgcr
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Hmgcr
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 17 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
pole cell & embryonic nervous system, with Scer\GAL4elav-C155
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902JE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150280 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01RX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01PQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0I1B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-80
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:23,733,324..23,750,992 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    95B1-95B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0690606906 and P{PZ}l(3)0468404684; Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0067338)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    95B1-95B3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95B5-95B6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    95A-95A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (54)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Hmgcr l(3)01152

    Source for merge of: Hmgcr BcDNA:LD15354

    Source for merge of: Hmgcr l(3)04684

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of Hmgcr BcDNA:LD15354 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

    Other Comments

    Ortholog of B. mori juvenile-hormone-related gene (involved in JH biosynthesis, metabolism or signaling).

    Isolated in an EMS mutagenesis screen to identify zygotic mutations affecting germ cell migration at discrete points during embryogenesis.

    Mutants exhibit specific germ cell migration defects.

    The Hmgcr gene product has a critical developmental function in providing spatial information to guide migrating primordial germ cells.

    The autosomal "FLP-DFS" technique (using the P{ovoD1-18} P{FRT(whs)} P{hsFLP} chromosomes) has been used to identify the specific maternal effect phenotype for the zygotic lethal mutation.

    Encodes 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-controlling enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in mammals. In D.melanogaster, the enzyme is not regulated by sterols (Brown et al., 1983; Silberkang et al., 1983); it synthesizes mevalonate for the production of nonsterol isoprenoids which are needed for growth and differentiation. The enzyme is found in cultured Kc and Schneider cells.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 43 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    BcDNA:LD15354
    l(3)04684
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0010845
    • FBgn0001205
    • FBgn0010738
    • FBgn0024247
    • FBgn0061415
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (140)