Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\mwh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
multiple wing hairs
Annotation Symbol
CG43772
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264272
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
multiple wing hairs (mwh) encodes the most downstream member of the fz/stan planar cell polarity pathway. It binds to the sides of F-actin polymers, inhibits actin polymerization and bundles F-actin. It accumulates on the proximal side of wing cells prior to hair initiation and then in the growing hair. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

multiple wing hair, BP1018

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-0
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:1200786..1232700
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (12 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:cmb; FB:FBgn0036365
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002509302
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR010473
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in cell migration
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002509302
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002509302
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002509302
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytosol
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002509302
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
multiple wing hairs (mwh) encodes the most downstream member of the fz/stan planar cell polarity pathway. It binds to the sides of F-actin polymers, inhibits actin polymerization and bundles F-actin. It accumulates on the proximal side of wing cells prior to hair initiation and then in the growing hair. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
mwh: multiple wing hairs
thumb
mwh: multiple wing hairs
Wing hairs. Left: wild type. Right: mwh. A. Di Pasquale, unpublished.
Affects the trichomes (hairs) of all body regions in the same general way: An increase in the number of elements is correlated with a reduction in length and a disturbance of orientation. Aristae and bracts are included in this pattern; bristles and other sensilla are not. Wing cells contain groups of 2-7 hairs instead of one hair per cell as in wild type; causes supernumerary trichomes over entire integument, but tufts of trichomes only in wing blade (Ouweneel, 1970, Genetica 41: 1-20); may be supernumerary hairs and sensilla on halteres (Ouweneel and van der Meer, 1972, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Org. 172: 149-61). Also causes disruption of polarity in legs, wings, and halteres; may disrupt orientation of hairs on leg without affecting their numbers (Bryant and Schneiderman, 1969, Dev. Biol. 20: 263-90); trichomes on wings tend to diverge from vein L3 rather than parallel it as in wild type (Gubb and Garcia-Bellido, 1982, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 68: 37-57). mwh/+ develop mwh phenotype following heat shock at or just prior to the time of cell-hair-extrusion (Mitchell and Petersen, 1984, Genetics 107: s74). Transplants of mutant wing disks to wild-type hosts develop autonomously (Ursprung and Hadorn, 1962, Dev. Biol. 4: 40-60). Widely used as a cell marker in the analysis of cuticular clones. The frequency of mwh spots after somatic recombination in mwh/+ flies increases with increase in the temperature at which the larvae and pupae are raised (Graf, 1986, DIS 63: 65). RK1.
*mwhsemi: multiple wing hairs-semi
Like mwh except that the groups of wing hairs are restricted to wing margins. Cells of wing surface between second and fifth longitudinal veins have single hair with only an occasional group. mwhsemi/mwh is like mwhsemi/mwhsemi. RK1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

G protein binding-formin homology 3 (GBD-FH3) protein - frizzled pathway - tissue planar cell polarity - regulation of hair initiation - inhibits new hair initiation events

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\mwh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0331392
3554
836
FBtr0331393
4063
1068
FBtr0336737
4066
1069
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0303809
91.0
836
7.62
FBpp0303810
116.6
1068
7.31
FBpp0307717
116.7
1069
7.31
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\mwh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

mwh is expressed in a subset of apodeme precursors and in cells of the epidermis.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
wing hair

Comment: from 30 hours APF on

wing | restricted

Comment: from 30 hours APF on

Additional Descriptive Data

mwh protein was observed in wing cells after 30 hours APF. It was observed in an uneven zigzag staining pattern at the cell periphery and accumulates near adherens junctions. It accumulates in both growing and emerging wing hairs and accumulates preferentially in the proximal part of the hair and not in the base at that time. Later in hair morphogenesis (after 36 hr APF), it accumulates preferentially in the base of the hairs.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\mwh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of mwh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of mwh
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 12 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
microchaeta & wing
trichome & adult head | dorsal | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
3 of 13
Yes
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
4 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
5 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901TX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915018N )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00S0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0BE8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    61E-61F
    Left limit from recombination mapping relative to fap (FBrf0033203) Right limit from recombination mapping relative to ru (FBrf0036117)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Notes

    Mapped by difference of T(1;3)scJ4-mwh and T(1;3)scJ4-ru distances, using y+ as marker.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (261)
    Genomic Clones (30)
    cDNA Clones (106)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: CG34022 BP1018

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: mwh CG13913

    Source for merge of: mwh CG34022

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG13913 and CG34022 merged as CG43772 in release 5.44 of the genome annotation. Merge supported by RNA-Seq junction and coverage data.

    Other Comments

    mwh appears to function as a repressor of actin filament formation, restricting the production of actin-rich prehairs to distal cell edges in the pupal wing.

    mwh has two temporally separate functions in wing development; early proximal mwh protein accumulation restricts hair initiation to the distal side of wing cells, while the later accumulation of mwh protein in the wing hair prevents the formation of ectopic secondary wing hairs.

    New annotation (CG34022) in release 4.3 of the genome annotation.

    Functions downstream of fz for planar polarity in the wing.

    mwh is epistatic to in and fy.

    The genotoxicity of six insecticides has been analysed using the wing spot test.

    The wing spot test has been used to assay the antigenotoxicity of a number of compounds.

    SMART is well suited for the determination of genotoxicity produced by in vivo nitrosation processes and for the study of their modulation by individual compounds or dietary complex mixtures.

    The genotoxic effect of the essential oils of O.vulgare, C.capitata and S.thymbra is tested using the SMART assay: the oils do not show any mutagenic or recombinagenic activity.

    The genotoxic effect DEHP is tested using the SMART assay, results reveal DEHP does not have a genotoxic effect.

    The genotoxic effect of 4 inhibitors of DNA topoisomerases has been studied using the wing spot assay.

    Ethanol reduces the mutagenic effect of γ-irradiation in SMART assay, mainly by decreasing the frequency of mitotic recombination.

    The genotoxic effect of integerrimine (ITR) are analysed using the wing spot test: ITR is genotoxic.

    Definitive denticle belt phenotypes (abnormal hairs and/or bristles) are foreshadowed by abnormal organisation of the actin cytoskeleton in embryonic epidermal cells.

    Vicinal chloroalcohols are investigated for genotoxicity in the wing spot test (SMART): tested compounds are non-genotoxic in this in vivo assay.

    Sodium azide is tested for somatic mutation and mitotic recombination induction in wing imaginal disc cells using the wing spot test. Sodium azide induces exclusively mitotic recombination in wing somatic cells after chronic exposure. This activity is reduced in the presence of high bioactivation capacity.

    The genotoxic effect PhIP is tested using the SMART assay, results reveal PhIP has a DNA-damaging activity.

    The mutagenic and/or carcinogenic activity of electromagnetic fields is estimated using the wing spot test in larvae, exposure causes a statistically significant enhancement of somatic recombination. Supplement of vitamin E suppresses this enhancement.

    Wing spots in the SMART reveal enzyme-sulfhydryl blocking agents, such as MMTS and DPDS, are effective antimutagens in vivo.

    The effect of chlorophyll on the genotoxic activity of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide has been studied using the wing spot test.

    The genotoxic effects of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) and acetone oxime (ACOX) are tested using the SMART test. The effect of Hsap\GST on the genotoxic effect is studied: flies carrying three or more copies of Hsap\GST are significantly more resistant to the genotoxic effect of ACOX.

    SMART is used to test the genotoxic effect of fullerene C-60: only at the highest possible fullerene concentration a slight genotoxic effect was observed in wing cells.

    Only the maximum possible content of fullerene C60 produces a slight genotoxic effect when using the SMART test.

    Assays of a series of compounds in the wing spot test indicates the single mwh spots appear most frequently, followed by less frequent twin spots and then the quite rare flr spots. Some compounds behave in this manner, others do not in that the frequency of single flr spots is equal to or exceeds that of twin spots.

    The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay four inhibitors of eukaryotic topoisomerases for genotoxic effects.

    The spectrum of genotoxic events detected by the wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) and the wi eye spot test is different. The wi eye spot test appears not to detect mitotic recombination the way the wing spot test does.

    The genetic effects of exposure to a range of concentrations of alpha particles has been studied using the wing-spot test.

    Six alkylating agents have been ranked as follows according to their genotoxic potency in the wing spot test: methyl methanesulfonate > mitomycin C > N-dimethylnitrosamine > chlorambucil ~ monocrotaline > N-diethylnitrosamine.

    The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay for genotoxic effects of griseofulvin.

    The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay for genotoxicity of tetracycline hydrochloride.

    The genotoxicity of 6 phenazine and aminophenazine derivatives is assayed using the wing spot test in larvae, chemicals exhibit significant mutagenicity.

    The relative biological effectiveness of 252Cf neutrons has been determined for two different types of somatic mutations, the wing-spot test (using mwh and flr) and reversion of eye-colour (using w).

    Gamma ray induced somatic clones of wing cells demonstrates the level of induction of mwh-like structures consisting of two trichomes and of true mwh mutations is the same if the former are located on the wing surface. These twi-trichome structures must be taken into account when using the mwh type spots in the method of somatic mosaics of wing cells.

    The effects of 10 carcinogens on the wing spot test are evaluated.

    Three assays (z-w, wi and wing spot) are used to evaluate the genotoxic response of five chemicals classified as genotoxic non-carcinogens, chemicals significantly increase the frequency of mutant clones.

    The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to test for any genotoxic effects of tannic acid.

    The wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) of larvae is used to evaluate the genotoxicity of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and three of their nitro derivatives, genotoxic activity can be detected in somatic cells.

    In young larvae only a few but very large spots are induced by application of a mutagen in the wing spot test. In older larvae the frequency is considerably increased but the sizes are smaller. Practically no twin spots (result of mitotic recombination) are found in young or in very old larvae. Results demonstrate the optimal age of the larvae for mutagen treatment is 72 hours.

    Wing spot test is used to evaluate the genotoxic effect of griseofulvin in somatic larval cells, griseofulvin is genotoxic in somatic cells.

    Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, is assayed in the wing spot test.

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), when used as a pretreatment, protects against mutation/recombination induced by γ rays and chromium (VI) oxide in larvae in the wing spot test.

    The mwh/flr wing spot test has been used to assay the genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin M1.

    Wing spot test reveals two triazine herbicides, terbutryn and terbuthylazin, are genotoxic in the wing primordia.

    Wing spot test reveals the triazine herbicide, simazine, is genotoxic in the wing primordia.

    The attached X and mwh/flr spot test system were used to demonstrate that ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza have inhibitory effects on the in vivo mutagenicity induced by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) during spermatogenesis.

    The wing spot test has been used to demonstrate that the somatic mutation and recombination test can be used for the genotoxic activity of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

    The adenine derivatives, (R,S)-9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine, D-eritadenine and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine, are potent inducers of both single spots and twin spots in a wing-spot assay.

    Wing spot tests rank the genotoxic effectiveness of a number of metal salts in the following order: CoCl2 > ZnCl2 > MoCl3 > (MnCl2, NiCl2).

    Somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) is used to determine the relevance of the in vitro effects induced by benzophenone-3: benzophenone-3 is not genotoxic.

    Wing-spot assay is used to evaluate the quantitative relationship between BaP-DNA adduct formation, determined by 32P-postlabelling, and the induction of phenotypically mutant cells.

    Chloral hydrate is recombinogenic in the wing spot test.

    Arsenic acid has an inhibitory effect on the induction of wing spots by gamma irradiation or alkylating agents in a wing-spot assay.

    High temperatures cause a small number of mwh spots in the wing-spot assay and cold temperatures yield much greater number of single spots.

    The effect of chlorophyllin on the genotoxicity of chromium(VI) oxide in larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr is assayed using the wing spot somatic test.

    The wing spot test is used to evaluate the genotoxicity of the antitumour indenoisoquinoline analogues of nitidine chloride and fagaronine chloride in larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr, the analogues have a very weak genotoxic effect.

    The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of three day old larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr is used to study the mutagenic potential of three benzocphenanthridine alkaloids with antileukemic properties as compared with that of two structurally related aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons.

    The wing spot test has been used to demonstrate that atrazine is genitoxic to the wing disc cells and male germline cells.

    Wing spot tests indicate that 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is genotoxic in the primordial wing cells of Drosophila.

    Four antidepressants and one neuroleptic drug are tested for genotoxicity using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in wing cells of three day old larvae transheterozygous for mwh and flr, the compounds are genotoxic.

    The genotoxicity of mitoxantrone has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The genotoxicity of p-dimethylaminoazobenzene has been analysed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    Chromium(VI) oxide is highly genotoxic in the mwh-flr wing spot assay.

    The genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos (Durmet) has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The wing spot test has been used to demonstrate that chloral hydrate is genitoxic to the wing disc cells and male germline cells.

    The genotoxicity of tritiated water has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The genotoxicity of furfural has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The genotoxicity of four herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, maleic hydrazide and paraquat) has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The mwh-flr wing spot test has been used to assay the genotoxicity of the insecticide Parryfos (monocrotophos).

    Wild type allele of mwh is present on Dp(3;f)Th and displays mosaic expression on the wings.

    The genotoxicity of irradiated cocoa has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    Somatic mutation in hybrid dysgenic flies has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The genotoxicity of a series of N-nitrosamines has been assayed using the mwh-flr wing spot test.

    The mutagenicity of tepezcohuite has been assayed using the wing spot test.

    The wing spot test has been used to assay the mutagenic activity of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Genotoxicity of acrolein is investigated using SMART, SCLT (sex chromosome loss test) and SLRLT (sex linked recessive lethal test). Acrolein is mutagenic in SLRLT when injected but not fed, SCLT does not reveal a clastogenic effect with acrolein and acrolein has a genotoxic effect in SMART.

    The mutagenic and recombinogenic activity of 3-beta-hydroxy-13-alpha-amino-13,17-seco-5-alpha-androstan-17-oic-13,17-lactam-p-bis-(2-chloroethyl) aminophenoxyacetate (NSC 294859) has been assayed using a wing somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART).

    Wing spot test (SMART) and sex-linked recessive lethal test (SLRLT) are used to test the mutagenicity of sumithion, a broad spectrum insecticide - compound is mutagenic in wing primordial cells and induces recombination at high doses.

    Acrylamide is both mutagenic and recombinogenic in wing disc cells and induces sex-linked recessive lethals.

    Genotoxicity of a chelating agent, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), is investigated using SMART. NTA is active in inducing mitotic recombination and possible aneuploidy in somatic cells.

    SMART in wing cells is used to test genotoxicity of 5 tricyclic antidepressants, results implicate the nitrogen atom at position 5 in the 7-membered ring of the tricyclic molecule as being responsible for the genotoxic property of the compounds.

    The effects of chemicals classified as non-carcinogens or unclassified, but known to have given one or more positive results, are tested using SMART. Also the sensitivity of SMART compared to SLRLT is tested.

    Genotoxicity of ethyl carbamate is tested using SMART: ethyl carbamate induces, in a dose-dependent manner, single as well as twin spots, indicating a recombinogenic activity.

    The effects of repair deficiency are studied by comparing the frequency of somatic mutation and mitotic recombination in repair proficient female progeny with that in excision repair defective male progeny. Nine chemical mutagens with various modes of action are tested in this way.

    The genetic toxicity of six carcinogens and six non-carcinogens are tested using SMART: carcinogens are highly toxic and the non-carcinogens are non-genotoxic.

    The genotoxic activity of a photochemical reaction mixture of 1,3-butadiene and nitrogen dioxide has been assayed using the wing spot test.

    SMART is used to assay the effects of NTA and EDTA in germ and somatic cell lines.

    Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    di Pasquale, Dec. 1950.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    CG34022
    mwh
    (Deng et al., 2021, Morata, 2021, Tanaka and Furuta, 2021, Brown et al., 2020, Ertuğrul et al., 2020, Oliveira et al., 2020, Wang and Dahmann, 2020, Blount et al., 2019, de Sousa et al., 2019, Fernández-Bedmar et al., 2019, Mateo-Fernández et al., 2019, Steinhauer et al., 2019, Toledano Medina et al., 2019, Villas Boas et al., 2019, Yasinskyi et al., 2019, Adler, 2018, Demir and Marcos, 2018, Garrido-Jimenez et al., 2018, Germani et al., 2018, Olakkaran et al., 2018, Oliveira et al., 2018, Saturnino et al., 2018, Alaraby et al., 2017, Çolak and Uysal, 2017, de Morais et al., 2017, Wang et al., 2017, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Carvajal-Gonzalez et al., 2016, Pruyne, 2016, Uchiyama et al., 2016, Bosch et al., 2015, Carmona et al., 2015, Carnes et al., 2015, Dembeck et al., 2015, Lu et al., 2015, Matthews et al., 2015, Fagan et al., 2014, Faisal et al., 2014, Gault et al., 2012, Szabad et al., 2012, Thomé et al., 2012, Carmona et al., 2011, Pardi et al., 2011, Danesi et al., 2010, Djiane and Mlodzik, 2010, Fang and Adler, 2010, Lu et al., 2010, Papaconstantinou et al., 2010, Pataki et al., 2010, Cruces et al., 2009, Hirano et al., 2009, McNamee and Brodsky, 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Rajan et al., 2009, Yan et al., 2009, Zakharenko and Perepelkina, 2009, Castro et al., 2008, Heres-Pulido et al., 2008, Strutt and Warrington, 2008, Taylor and Adler, 2008, Yan et al., 2008, Charroux et al., 2006, Goodman et al., 2006, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, do Amaral et al., 2005, Romero-Jimenez et al., 2005, Taira et al., 2005, Fanto and McNeill, 2004, He and Adler, 2002, Koana et al., 2001)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0260963
    • FBgn0002912
    • FBgn0035190
    • FBgn0054022
    • FBgn0082888
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (316)