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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\ab
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
abrupt
Annotation Symbol
CG43860
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264442
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
abrupt (ab) encodes a transcription factor that negatively regulates ecdysone signaling, as it binds to the product of tai. It regulates animal survival, organogenesis and multiple tissue morphogenesis, epithelial cell fate, cellular sexual identity, neuron differentiation and neuronal identity switch, cell migration, oncogenesis and germline differentiation. In many cell types, the product of ab is post-transcriptionally repressed by the steroid-induced miRNA let-7. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As
clu, clueless
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:11,210,678..11,261,080 [+]
Recombination map
2-44
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Molecular Function (GO)
[Detailed GO annotations]
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Expression is vital for development; may be involved in transcriptional regulation. In embryos, muscle specific expression is required for segmental nerve b (SNb) motoneuron target recognition within ventral longitudinal muscles. Has a role in establishing and maintaining embryonic muscle attachments, adult sensory cell formation (macrochaetae) and morphogenesis of adult appendages (legs, antenna aristae and male external genitalia). Has a role in the morphogenesis of the class I dendritic neurons: selective expression of ab in class I da neurons plays a pivotal role in forming dendritic arbors, which are characteristic of the class I cells. The development of more complex arbors of class II-IV neurons depends on the absence of ab.
(UniProt, Q24174)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
ab: abrupt
thumb
ab: abrupt
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Vein L5 usually stops after posterior crossvein. Scutellar bristles usually fewer. Wing effect probably acts during contraction period (Waddington). Overlaps wild type. Expression more severe in females than in males and when pupal stage takes place at 20 than at 25. TSP during the first 10% of pupal stage. (Thompson, Bruni, Carbonaro, and Russo, 1988, DIS 67: 86). RK2.
ab2
Vein L5 does not reach margin. Scutellar bristles always fewer than wild type. Hairs parted down midline of thorax and abdomen. Supra-alar bristles sometimes absent. Coxae tend to be thickened. Males sterile and have rotated genitalia. ab/ab2 resembles ab/ab but has a stronger bristle effect. RK2.
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\ab or the JBrowse view of Dmel\ab for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.48
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0332558
5164
904
FBtr0332557
4840
894
FBtr0332560
4888
894
FBtr0332561
4269
899
FBtr0332562
4490
894
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
5.1 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0304816
95.1
904
6.28
FBpp0304815
94.0
894
6.17
FBpp0304818
94.0
894
6.17
FBpp0304819
97.3
899
7.23
FBpp0304820
94.0
894
6.17
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

894 aa isoforms: ab-PB, ab-PD, ab-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
904, 894 (aa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\ab using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (14 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR013087
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ab is expressed in all the cells of the ventral midline starting in stage 9. The only other site of nervous system expression is the stomatogastric nervous system and its precursors. Epidermal expression begins in stage 11 in a pattern of stripes and is uniform by stage 12. ab is expressed in all 30 embryonic abdominal muscles with the highest concentrations in the ventral longitudinal, ventral oblique, and segmental border muscles. ab is also expressed in all imaginal discs.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
ab is widely expressed in somatic and germline cells during oogenesis. During stage S9, the accumulation of protein in the nucleus decreases specifically in border cells. The ab antibody also stains the apical surfaces of follicle cells, the oocyte cortex, and ring canals.
ab is expressed in all the cells of the ventral midline starting in stage 9. The only other site of nervous system expression is the stomatogastric nervous system and its precursors. Epidermal expression begins in stage 11 in a pattern of stripes and is uniform by stage 12. ab is expressed in all 30 embryonic abdominal muscles with the highest concentrations in the ventral longitudinal, ventral oblique, and segmental border muscles. ab is also expressed in all imaginal discs.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}abBL97
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{lwB}ab94
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\ab in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 39 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of ab
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of ab
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
autophagic vacuole & larval fat body | somatic clone | cell autonomous
leg (with ab1)
leg (with ab1D)
leg (with ab60M)
leg (with abG9)
lysosome & larval fat body | somatic clone | cell autonomous
macrochaeta & wing
macrochaeta & wing (with ab1)
macrochaeta & wing (with ab1D)
macrochaeta & wing (with ab60M)
macrochaeta & wing (with abG9)
microchaeta & abdomen
microchaeta & thorax
mitochondrion & larval fat body | somatic clone | cell autonomous
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (5)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904BE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508CF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W08ZC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X08VD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (21)
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-44
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:11,210,678..11,261,080 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    32E1-32E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)0400804008&P{PZ}cmet04431 and P{PZ}salm03602
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    32E1-32E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(2)0400804008&P{PZ}cmet04431 and P{PZ}salm03602
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (37)
    Genomic Clones (37)
    cDNA Clones (92)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      polyclonal
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: ab CG4807
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: ab B2149
      Source for merge of: ab CG32830
      Additional comments
      Annotations CG4807 and CG32830 merged as CG43860 in release 5.45 of the genome annotation. Merge supported by second tier modENCODE RNA-seq junction (FBrf0217580).
      Other Comments
      ab is a repressor of ecdysone signalling and border follicle cell migration.
      dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene. ab RNAi causes an increase in dendrite arborization of ddaD and ddaE neurons. There is an increase in the number and length of lateral branches, which results in an expansion of the coverage field, most noticeably along the anteroposterior (AP) axis. In addition to these defects,ab RNAi also causes frequent cell death, defects in muscle, alterations in the number of MD neurons, defects in dendrite morphogenesis and reproducible defects in da dendrite development.
      New annotation (CG32830) in release 3 of the genome annotation.
      P-element excision and γ ray induced lethal mutations of the enhancer trap BL97 fail to complement ab.
      ab encodes a BTB-zinc finger regulatory protein that controls the specificity of neuromuscular connections.
      Loss of vein mutations cause suppression of rhohs.PSt ectopic vein phenotype and enhancement of the rhove-1 loss of vein phenotype.
      Identification: Mutations affecting neuromuscular connectivity, using an antibody to Fas2.
      Mutations in ab affect individual longitudinal veins: vein specific effects.
      kni, tg, tt, ab, cv, cv-2, cv-c and cv-d belong to the radius incompletus phenotypic group within the 'lack-of-vein' mutant class. Loss-of-function alleles at these loci remove stretches of veins in two or more longitudinal veins. Double mutants of this group have additive phenotypes suggesting the genes are vein-specific, and small lanceolate wings. Therefore involved in whole vein-region specification rather than vein differentiation. ab alleles may have pleiotropic effects on leg development or be embryonic lethal.
      Loss of function is lethal, with effects on connectivity of segmental nerves; hypomorphic alleles affect the development of wing veins, especially wing vein L5, with effects in coxa, male genitalia and bristles.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Bridges, 16th Oct. 1916.
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 58 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      B2149
      CG32830
      l(2)k02807
      ptd
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0259750
      • FBgn0259599
      • FBgn0000011
      • FBgn0013436
      • FBgn0022233
      • FBgn0052830
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (173)