who, struthio, l(3)j5B5, Who/How, SZ1
KH motif - putative RNA-binding protein - functions in the migration and attachment of somatic muscle cells - targets Dpp mRNA - cell divisions in the embryonic mesoderm are repressed via posttranscriptional regulation of string/cdc25 by How - repression of the Drosophila midkine and pleiotrophin homolog miple by HOW is essential for correct mesoderm spreading
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\how using the Feature Mapper tool.
Comment: reported as pericardial cell specific anlage
how is expressed in the embryonic mesoderm at the time of mesoderm spreading (stages 7-9). Only the "long" isoform is detected at this time.
how protein is expressed in female germline stem cells and in the cystoblast. how expression is downregulated by the 2-cell stage in the female germarium. In the male, how is detected in 2 cell cysts. how expression is complementary to bam::GFP. How protein is also detected in some somatic cells of the ovary including the terminal filament cells, cap cells, and interfollicle cells.
how protein expression was detected in vas-expressing GSCs, their immediate daughter cells (gonialblasts), and 2-cell spermatogonial cysts. Expression is downregulated at the 4-cell stage. how protein expression is also detected in somatic hub cells and in the nuclei of mature cyst cells but not in somatic stem cells.
how is expressed in the embryonic mesoderm at the time of mesoderm spreading (stages 7-9). Only the "long" isoform is detected at this time while long and short isoforms are detected at later embryonic stages.
how protein is detected by immunolocalization in dissected tissues in imaginal disc, gut, fat body and salivary gland at 0hr pupae. It is also seen in the CNS.
how protein is first detected in the cells of the ventral furrow and the staining extends beyond the cephalic furrow. In the early stages of gastrulation, staining is mostly in the ventral furrow but is also seen in head mesoderm and around the cephalic furrow. Later, expression becomes restricted to myogenic cells. Expression is observed in precursors of the somatic muscles, pharyngeal muscles, visceral muscles and cardiac cells. Expression is also seen in muscle attachment sites. In larvae, expression is observed in the nuclei of muscle fibers and in adepithelial cells of the imaginal discs. In adults, expression occurs in the tendon cells that attach the flight muscle fibers to the dorsal cuticle of the thorax. During oogenesis, expression is observed in follicular stalk cells that join the different egg chambers in the ovary.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\how in GBrowse 2
Located on 3R.
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: how CG10293
Identification: Genetic screen for mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones.
how encodes a member of the KH RNA binding protein family that functions during muscle development.
Cloning and partial characterisation of how, defined by the Scer\GAL4 24B transposant. Four cDNAs (2-9, 4-2, D-11 and D-5) that contain a KH domain are isolated and sequence compared to how : a family of proteins having closely related KH domains is discovered.
Identification: Genetic screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. 1 allele of how has been isolated.