General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rdx
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
roadkill
Annotation Symbol
CG12537
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264493
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Roadkill functions as a substrate recognition component of Cul3-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. It regulates the Hedgehog signaling pathway by promoting the degradation of the transcription factor ci. [Date last reviewed: 2017-07-20]
Also Known As
hib, l(3)88Aa, l(3)2004, SPOP, l(3)03477
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:13,967,061..14,032,057 [-]
Recombination map
3-54
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
GO Summary Ribbons
Families, Domains and Molecular Function
Gene Group Membership (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt, Sequence Similarities)
Belongs to the Tdpoz family. (Q9VFP2)
Molecular Function (see GO section for details)
Summaries
Gene Group Membership
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
UniProt Contributed Function Data
Involved in segment polarity. In complex with gft/CUL3, promotes ubiquitination of ci and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome, which results in hh signaling attenuation. This regulation may be important during eye formation for proper packing of ommatidia into a hexagonal array.
(UniProt, Q9VFP2)
Phenotypic Description from the Red Book (Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(3)88Aa
Homozygous larvae die in third instar; discs reported as missing, probably rudimentary (see Szabad and Bryant, l982, Dev. Biol. 93: 240-56). Mitotic chromosomes fuzzy and swollen; 27% of cells polyploid; chromosome breaks observed (Gatti and Baker, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 438-53).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\rdx or the JBrowse view of Dmel\rdx for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
5' UTR contains an ORF described as a putative conserved uORF (FBrf0204849); potential peptide 25aa in length.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0301632
2962
406
FBtr0301633
2311
374
FBtr0301634
2802
403
FBtr0100361
4159
829
FBtr0334298
3856
406
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0290846
45.8
406
5.93
FBpp0290847
42.3
374
5.97
FBpp0290848
45.3
403
6.32
FBpp0099767
89.7
829
7.66
FBpp0306413
45.8
406
5.93
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

406 aa isoforms: rdx-PA, rdx-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with ci and gft/CUL3.
(UniProt, Q9VFP2)
Domain
The MATH domain interacts with ci. The BTB (POZ) domain interacts with gft/CUL3.
(UniProt, Q9VFP2)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rdx using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (20 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P19538
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9V475
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ci; FB:FBgn0004859
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698163
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698163
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698163
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698163
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698163
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000698511
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

ectoderm anlage

Comment: anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

ventral nerve cord primordium

Comment: reported as ventral nerve cord anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rdx in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs and Phenotypes
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 84 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Allele of rdx
Class
Mutagen
Associated Insertion
Stocks
Known lesion
    0
    Yes
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rdx
    Allele of rdx
    Mutagen
    Associated Transgenic Construct
    Stocks
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rdx
    Deletions and Duplications ( 18 )
    Summary of Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    9 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
     
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    Yes
    6 of 15
    No
    Yes
    5 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (19)
    7 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    7 of 13
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 13
    No
    Yes
    3 of 13
    No
    Yes
    3 of 13
    No
    Yes
    3 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    Yes
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
    7 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (10)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    8 of 15
    No
    Yes
    7 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (32)
    10 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    2 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
    3 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    3 of 9
    Yes
    Yes
    2 of 9
    No
    Yes
    2 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    1 of 9
    No
    No
    1 of 9
    No
    Yes
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No orthologs reported.
    Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919066A )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915054W )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06G6 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X06BW )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Ixodes scapularis
    Black-legged tick
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Tetranychus urticae
    Two-spotted spider mite
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07ZM )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Human Disease Model Data
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Alleles Reported to Model Human Disease (Disease Ontology)
      Download
      Models ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Interactions ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Comments ( 0 )
       
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please look at the Interaction Group reports for full details of the physical interactions
      protein-protein
      Interacting group
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with ci and gft/CUL3.
      (UniProt, Q9VFP2 )
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
      Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
      Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulation the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-54
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:13,967,061..14,032,057 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      88A1-88A4
      Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0099762) Right limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0099762); Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}flfl01949 and P{lacW}trxj14A6&P{PZ}trx00347
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      88A-88B
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      88A4-88A5
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      88A1-88A2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (53)
      Genomic Clones (42)
      cDNA Clones (141)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequences
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for identity of: rdx CG9924
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: rdx mei-P19
      Source for merge of: l(3)dsl6 l(3)SG40
      Source for merge of: l(3)88Aa l(3)03477
      Source for merge of: CG12537 anon-WO0118547.577
      Source for merge of: rdx CG9924
      Source for merge of: CG9924 BEST:GM07940
      Source for merge of: rdx l(3)S086909
      Additional comments
      Source for merge of CG12537 anon-WO0118547.577 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).
      Other Comments
      Host gene for maternally inherited stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA).
      rdx is expressed in response to hh.
      Area matching Drosophila EST AA696584 (inverted).
      Identification: In a genetic screen for meiotic mutants.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      One allele generates embryos with mitotic defects that often fail to completely cellularize, hence, the name "roadkill".
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 73 )
      Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Linkouts
      ApoDroso - Functional genomic database for photoreceptor development, survival and function
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEST:GM07940
      Dromel_CG9924_FBtr0082871_rdx_mORF
      anon-WO0118547.577
      l(3)A6
      l(3)S086909
      l(3)SG40
      l(3)dsl-6
      l(3)dsl6
      l(3)j1D1
      l(3)j4C7
      mei-P19
      Name Synonyms
      CG9924
      Cul3-Hedghog-induced MATH and BTB domain-containing protein
      Hh-induced MATH and BTB domain containing protein
      hedegehog-induced BTB protein
      hedgehog- induced BTB protein
      lethal (3) S086909
      meiotic P19
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0011366
      • FBgn0011314
      • FBgn0010801
      • FBgn0004722
      • FBgn0002364
      • FBpp0082336
      • FBtr0082873
      • FBgn0061865
      • FBgn0044329
      • FBgn0038193
      • FBgn0038192
      • FBgn0026625
      • FBgn0086364
      • FBgn0262907
      • FBgn0028076
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (118)