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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\CaMKII
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
Annotation Symbol
CG18069
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264607
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (2.7.11.17)
Gene Snapshot
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) encodes an abundant Ca[2+]-calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine protein kinase. In neurons it has a wide range of substrates in multiple subcellular compartments, regulating synaptic plasticity, excitability and cytoskeletal interactions. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Also Known As

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, dCaMKII, CaM kinase II, l(4)16, CaM kinase

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
4:1,035,288..1,053,703 [-]
Recombination map

4-0

RefSeq locus
NC_004353 REGION:1035288..1053703
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CaMK subfamily. (Q00168)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.17)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.17)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES -
The Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent kinase family are serine/threonine kinases which, in general, prefer substrates containing basic residues. Many, but not all, members are regulated by calcium or calmodulin. (Adapted from FBrf0132098).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
A key regulator of plasticity in synaptic physiology and behavior, alterations in its activity produce pleiotrophic effects that involve synaptic transmission and development as well as various aspects of behavior. Directly modulates eag potassium channels.
(UniProt, Q00168)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
12
Number of Unique Polypeptides
8

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\CaMKII or the JBrowse view of Dmel\CaMKII for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Evidence supports alternative transcription start site within intronic TE (RAMPAGE TSS data, FBrf0220331; short-capped RNA data, FBrf0209722; RNA-Seq junction data). May be specific to sequenced strain; not included in gene model.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089218
3589
490
FBtr0089219
3730
509
FBtr0089217
3759
490
FBtr0100146
3879
530
FBtr0100147
3816
509
FBtr0100148
3837
516
FBtr0300377
2371
490
FBtr0300378
3775
530
FBtr0300379
1845
531
FBtr0333673
3735
482
FBtr0333674
3855
522
FBtr0333675
3801
504
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088282
55.5
490
7.48
FBpp0088283
57.6
509
7.34
FBpp0088281
55.5
490
7.48
FBpp0099496
59.9
530
7.46
FBpp0099497
57.6
509
7.34
FBpp0099498
58.4
516
7.48
FBpp0289606
55.5
490
7.48
FBpp0289607
59.9
530
7.46
FBpp0289608
60.0
531
7.46
FBpp0305829
54.7
482
7.22
FBpp0305830
59.0
522
7.33
FBpp0305831
57.1
504
7.33
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

530 aa isoforms: CaMKII-PD, CaMKII-PI
509 aa isoforms: CaMKII-PB, CaMKII-PE
490 aa isoforms: CaMKII-PA, CaMKII-PC, CaMKII-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

530, 516, 509, 490 (aa); 60, 58, 55 (kD)

490 (aa); 55 (kD)

Comments

There are four forms of CaMKII kinase which differ by insertions or deletions near the carboxy terminus of the putative link segment which is thought to join the amino- and carboxy-terminal globules. They were purified from transfected mammalian cells and Drosophila head extracts and their catalytic properties described. Catalytic activity is dependent on Ca2+ and calmodulin before autophosphorylation. Ca2+-independent activity is observed after autophosphorylation.

There are four forms of CaMKII kinase which differ by insertions or deletions near the carboxy terminus of the putative link segment which is thought to join the amino and carboxy-terminal globules. They were purified from transfected mammalian cells and Drosophila head extracts and their catalytic properties described. Catalytic activity is dependent on Ca2+ and calmodulin before autophosphorylation. Ca2+-independent activity is observed after autophosphorylation.

There are four forms of CaMKII kinase which differ by insertions or deletions near the carboxy terminus of the putative link segment which is thought to join the amino and carboxy-terminal globules. They were purified from transfected mammalian cells and Drosophila head extracts and their catalytic properties described. Catalytic activity is dependent on Ca2+ and calmodulin before autophosphorylation. Ca2+-independent activity is observed after autophosphorylation. The 516aa isoform is a minor form in adult heads.

One of several products generated by alternative splicing.

CaMKII protein purified 200-fold from adult Drosophila heads was shown to have kinase activity and to aquire Ca2+-independent activity after autophosphorylaton. CaMKII protein expressed from a Drosophila cDNA in COS cells was shown to have the same properties. Four autophosphorylation sites are conserved between the rat and the Drosophila enzymes.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with CASK.

(UniProt, Q00168)
Post Translational Modification

Autophosphorylation at Thr-287 is independent of autophosphorylation at Thr-306 and Thr-307.

(UniProt, Q00168)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\CaMKII using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (25 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002389359
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002389359
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002389359
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002389359
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

CaMKII transcripts from very early embryos have only the short 3' UTR form while adult heads have both the long and short 3' UTR forms.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

CaMkII protein is expressed uniformly in body wall muscles at 14 hrs AEL. By 22 hrs AEL, CaMKII can be faintly detected in the axons and terminal buttons of motor neurons innervating the A1-7 ventral longitudinal muscles 1-4 (muscles 6, 7, 12 and 13). By 22 hrs AEL, CamKII immunoreactivity intensely labels the motor neuron terminal buttons, and the corresponding postsynaptic densities.

CaMKII protein is expressed at much greater levels in adult head than body.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{CaMKII-GAL4.7}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\CaMKII in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of CaMKII
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of CaMKII
Deletions and Duplications ( 7 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
neuromuscular junction & bouton, with Scer\GAL4unspecified
neuromuscular junction & postsynaptic membrane, with Scer\GAL4unspecified
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (21)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
 
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
 
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (20)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
 
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (21)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
 
7 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (24)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (33)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (46)
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
No
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
No
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
3 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
4 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
1 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905LA )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503MD )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03EO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03BF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0SCS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
5 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with CASK.
(UniProt, Q00168 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
4
Recombination map

4-0

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
4:1,035,288..1,053,703 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
102F6-102F2
Left limit from inclusion within Df(4)3 (FBrf0022724) Right limit from inclusion within Df(4)38 (FBrf0022724)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
102E-102F
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

4-1

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (15)
Genomic Clones (25)
cDNA Clones (401)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequences
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: CaMKII CG18069

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: CaMKII l(4)102EFb

Additional comments
Other Comments

Host gene for maternally inherited stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA).

Candidate stable intronic sequence RNA (sisRNA) identified within CDS of this gene.

CaMKII activity increases levels of p-Akt1 in larval motor nerve terminals in a Fak56D-dependent manner.

Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) down-regulates a distinct splice isoform(s) of this gene.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

CaMKII protein phosphorylates eag protein at Thr-787.

dlg1 and CaMKII protein colocalise at synapses and exist in the same protein complex.

The CaMKII protein is the kinase that phosphorylates phosrestin 1, the product of the Arr2 gene. The earliest light induced phosphorylation in the photoreceptor is the phosphorylation of a single site of Arr2 by a kinase dependent on both Ca2+ and calmodulin. The kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of Arr2 is CaMKII. Results suggest CaMKII may play a role in regulating light adaptation in photoreceptors.

The basic catalytic functions of six CaMKII isoforms are characterised. Results reveal the protein family is functionally homologous to the rat CaM kinase II.

Isoforms of CaMKII have similar biochemical properties, they exhibit differential activity by mutant Cam proteins. Data supports a role for the C-terminal variable region of CaMKII in the mechanism of activation and demonstrate that stimulation of CaMKII catalytic activity by Cam is a multistep process, with separate binding and activation steps.

A key regulator of plasticity in synaptic physiology and behaviour, alterations in its activity produce pleiotropic effects that involve synaptic transmission and development as well as various aspects of behaviour.

A fifth form of CaMKII is isolated, it is maternally derived and is identical to the 530 amino acid polypeptide except for the missing exon 11.

Study of transformed lines expressing a specific inhibitor of CaMKII (Rat\CamKII-I) suggests an important role of CaMKII in the stability of synaptic transmission.

CaMKII is alternatively spliced, producing a variety of protein isoforms.

CaMKII activity can be inhibited by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the rat autoinhibitory domain of CaM kinase. Results suggest that CaMKII activity is required for plastic behaviour in an intact animal.

A large gene with at least 16 exons encoding 4 forms of Cam kinase by alternate splicing.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 102 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (41)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
CaMKII
(Amourda and Saunders, 2020, Sethi et al., 2019, Su et al., 2019, Yildirim et al., 2019, Bakthavachalu et al., 2018, Ravi et al., 2018, Allen et al., 2017, Bienkowski et al., 2017, Busto et al., 2017, Kline et al., 2017, Kuklin et al., 2017, Oka et al., 2017, Rajan et al., 2017, Tay and Pek, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Ulian-Benitez et al., 2017, Vonhoff and Keshishian, 2017, Zhu et al., 2017, Cannon and Bodmer, 2016, Flores-Benitez and Knust, 2016, Golovin and Broadie, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Lee et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Frank, 2014, Lim et al., 2014, Lye et al., 2014, Milakovic et al., 2014, Mukherjee et al., 2014, Santalla et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Sudhakaran et al., 2014, Gillespie and Hodge, 2013, Kanamori et al., 2013, Malik et al., 2013, Sadanandappa et al., 2013, Sartain and Wolfner, 2013, Tang et al., 2013, Timmerman et al., 2013, Vonhoff et al., 2013, Xiong and Bellen, 2013, Yin et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2012, Chorna and Hasan, 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kadas et al., 2012, Minke, 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Shirasaki et al., 2012, Winbush et al., 2012, Chun-Jen Lin et al., 2011, Ping and Tsunoda, 2011, Shakiryanova et al., 2011, Tian et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Akalal et al., 2010, Carrillo et al., 2010, Hillebrand et al., 2010, Morimoto et al., 2010, Yang et al., 2010, Bostrom et al., 2009, Hansen et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Pradeep et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Wong et al., 2009, Lee and Han, 2008, Riddle et al., 2008, Baker et al., 2007, Harrisingh et al., 2007, Johansson et al., 2007, Kazama et al., 2007, Shakiryanova et al., 2007, Ashraf et al., 2006, Ashraf et al., 2006, Barbee et al., 2006, Hodge et al., 2006, Mehren and Griffith, 2006, van der Plas et al., 2006, White-Grindley and Si, 2006, Dunn and Mercier, 2005, Marques, 2005, Mehren and Griffith, 2004, Morimoto-Tanifuji et al., 2004, Sun et al., 2004, Broughton et al., 2003, Dubnau et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Kazama et al., 2003, Lu et al., 2003, Park et al., 2002, Yao and Wu, 2001, GuptaRoy et al., 2000, Long and Griffith, 2000, Koh et al., 1999)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Cam
CamKIIα
l(4)102EFb
l(4)ar
Name Synonyms
Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase II
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
CaM-kinase-II
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii
Calmodulin kinase II
calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II
calmodulin-dependent kinase
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II
lethal (4) 102EFb
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0004624
  • FBgn0004537
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Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
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References (266)