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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mhc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Myosin heavy chain
Annotation Symbol
CG17927
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0264695
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Myosin heavy chain (Mhc) encodes the motor protein that provides the force for muscle contraction through its ATP-dependent interaction with actin filaments. It functions with essential and regulatory light chains. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
myosin, MRP, ifm(2)RU2, muscle myosin heavy chain, Ifm(2)RU1
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:16,766,566..16,788,766 [+]
Recombination map
2-53
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TRAFAC class myosin-kinesin ATPase superfamily. Myosin family. (P05661)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MYOSINS -
Myosins are motor proteins which use the hydrolysis of ATP to drive movement along actin filaments. Myosins can be divided into two groups. Conventional myosins (myosin II) are involved in generating the mechanical force for muscle contraction. Unconventional myosins are involved in processes such as cell motility, cytokinesis and trafficking. (Adapted from FBrf0134714).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Muscle contraction.
(UniProt, P05661)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Mhc: Muscle myosin heavy chain
Structural gene for the heavy chain of muscle myosin (MHC). Heterozygotes for dominant flightless mutant alleles are characterized by erect wings and disrupted myofibrils in the indirect flight muscles. Segmental-deficiency heterozygotes for the locus are also flightless with disrupted myofibrils. Flight can be rescued in heterozygotes for most alleles by addition of a second Mhc+ allele to the complement, or by making the fly simultaneously hemizygous for Act88F [Beall, Sepanski, and Fyrberg, 1989, Genes Dev. 3: 131-40 (fig.)].
Mhc1
Homozygous embryos show no movement; unable to hatch; ultrastructural observations show complete lack of thick filaments in muscles. Heterozygotes display nearly a 50% reduction in the numbers of thick filaments in indirect flight muscles and the tergal-depressor-of-the-trochanter muscle, resulting in disruption of the normal regular array of thick and thin filaments in these muscles. Other less regularly organized muscles, although having reduced numbers of thick filaments, appear to function adequately in Mhc1/+ flies (O'Donnell and Bernstein, 1988, J. Cell Biol. 107: 260-12).
Mhc5
20% of heterozygotes display indented thorax and erect wings and are flightless; the remainder have normal phenotype but fly poorly. Homozygotes display erect wing phenotype. Judged to be antimorphic since not rescued by addition of Dp(2;3)osp3. Mhc5 interaction in double heterozygotes with other flightless mutants observed by Homyk and Emerson (1988, Genetics 119: 105-21). Heterozygous viability severely reduced in combination with hemizygous hdp2, int3, up101; or upx; rare escapers have gnarled legs, walk poorly, and die within two days of eclosion. Females doubly heterozygous for Mhc5 and hdp2, int3, up101; or upx have normal viability but are completely flightless and display abnormal wing posture.
Mhc6
Heterozygotes fly moderately well and display normal wing posture; hemizygotes flightless and occasionally have abnormal wing posture. Double heterozygotes with hdp101, hdp102, int3, up101; or upx; but not hdp2, much more nearly flightless than Mhc6/+; wing posture normal.
Mhc7
Indirect flight muscles accumulate little or no MHC, have no thick filaments, and show no organized myofibrils. The four smaller cells of the tergal depressor of the trochanter muscle (TDT) display reduction in thick filament number and myofibril size; large TDT cells unaffected. Flies jump 33% as well as wild type. Leg muscle MHC found in normal amounts (O'Donnell et al., 1989).
Mhc8
Heterozygotes display indented thorax and erect wings. Judged to be antimorphic since not rescued by addition of Dp(2;3)osp3. Mhc8 interaction in double heterozygotes with other flightless mutants observed by Homyk and Emerson (1988, Genetics 119: 105-21). Heterozygous viability severely reduced in combination with either heterozygous or hemizygous hdp2, int3, and up101; lethal in upx/Y males. No interaction with the following: hdp3, hdp4, hdp5, hdp101, hdp102, up2, up3, or up102.
Mhc9
Indirect flight muscles accumulate little or no MHC, have no thick filaments, and show no organized myofibrils. The four smaller cells of the TDT display reduction in thick filament number and myofibril size; large TDT cells unaffected. Flies jump 59% as well as wild type. Leg muscle MHC found in normal amounts (O'Donnell et al., 1989).
Mhc10
Indirect flight muscles accumulate little or no MHC, have no thick filaments, and show no organized myofibrils. All 32 TDT cells lack thick filaments and lack myofibril organization. Flies cannot jump. Leg muscles accumulate 55% normal amounts of MHC (O'Donnell et al., 1989).
Mhc11
Indirect flight muscles accumulate little or no MHC, have no thick filaments, and show no organized myofibrils. No apparent effect on TDT; unique among alleles in being capable of jumping. Leg muscle MHC found in normal amounts (O'Donnell et al., 1989).
Mhc12
Indirect flight muscles accumulate little or no MHC, have no thick filaments, and show no organized myofibrils. The four smaller cells of the TDT display reduction in thick filament number and myofibril size; large TDT cells unaffected.
Mhc13
A dominant flightless mutation; in homozygotes but not heterozygotes, the myofibrils of dorsolateral indirect flight muscles, although displaying normal morphology at eclosion, degenerate with time so that each cell is composed of a narrow strip of material connected to a bulged-out region. Some areas of the cells contain over-contracted sarcomeres and others show arrays of thick and thin filaments splayed throughout the cytoplasm. Abnormal morphology is recessive. Unlike the situation with other Mhc mutations, the dominant flightlessness of Mhc13 not rescued by the addition of a second dose of Mhc+.
Mhc16
Heterozygotes display indented thorax and erect wings; flightless; hemizygotes semilethal, very inactive, have weak mesothoracic legs which are generally folded beneath the thorax; die prematurely after eclosion. Judged to be antimorphic since not rescued by addition of Dp(2;3)osp3. Mhc16 interaction in double heterozygotes with other flightless mutants observed by Homyk and Emerson (1988, Genetics 119: 105-21). Heterozygous viability severely reduced in combination with hemizygous hdp2, int3, up101; or upx; rare escapers have gnarled legs, walk poorly, and die within two days of eclosion.
Sht: Shrunken thorax
Heterozygotes exhibit an indentation across the dorsal mesothorax giving the appearance of shrunken thorax. Typically a groove runs across the thorax in a V shape. There is some variability in the expressivity; a small fraction of flies have only a marginal phenotype, but the penetrance is nearly complete. Newly emerged flies do not often show the phenotype or have only a faint line on the thorax; the groove becomes visible as the cuticle hardens. Mutant flies have good viability and fertility. Homozygous lethal.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
21
Number of Unique Polypeptides
20

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Mhc or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mhc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.56
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Terminal exon usage of Mhc shifts mid-development during muscle filament assembly (FBrf0221075).
Gene model reviewed during 6.02
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080896
6671
1962
FBtr0080897
6671
1962
FBtr0080898
6671
1962
FBtr0080900
6671
1962
FBtr0080899
6671
1962
FBtr0080901
6671
1962
FBtr0080895
6671
1962
FBtr0080902
6671
1962
FBtr0080903
6671
1962
FBtr0080906
7341
1936
FBtr0080905
7173
1936
FBtr0080907
7173
1936
FBtr0301827
6735
1949
FBtr0301828
6833
1962
FBtr0301829
6735
1949
FBtr0307492
6813
1962
FBtr0307493
6671
1962
FBtr0307494
6826
1962
FBtr0307495
6621
1962
FBtr0307496
6895
1949
FBtr0346712
6826
1962
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.5, 4.2 (unknown)
8.6, 8.0, 7.2 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080453
224.6
1962
6.06
FBpp0080454
224.4
1962
6.01
FBpp0080455
224.4
1962
6.02
FBpp0080457
224.5
1962
6.02
FBpp0080456
224.6
1962
6.02
FBpp0080458
224.5
1962
6.05
FBpp0080452
224.5
1962
6.06
FBpp0080459
224.7
1962
6.02
FBpp0080460
224.6
1962
5.98
FBpp0080463
221.4
1936
6.10
FBpp0080462
221.5
1936
6.01
FBpp0080464
221.5
1936
6.05
FBpp0291041
223.0
1949
6.19
FBpp0291042
224.5
1962
6.06
FBpp0291043
222.8
1949
6.13
FBpp0298827
224.6
1962
6.16
FBpp0298828
224.3
1962
6.06
FBpp0298829
224.6
1962
6.23
FBpp0298830
224.3
1962
6.14
FBpp0298831
222.9
1949
6.14
FBpp0312323
224.5
1962
6.21
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1962 aa isoforms: Mhc-PG, Mhc-PO
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
155 (kD observed)
Comments
Mhc protein in used as a marker for the visceral muscles or their precursors, which overlie the epithelial foregut and hindgut.
corresponds to exon16 encoded by g1335628
one of several products generated by alternative splicing
this fragment corresponds to part of exon 17 encoded by g133629 and all of exon 18 encoded by g1335630; MHC2 RNA found in pupal adult stages only
this fragment corresponds to part of exon 17 encoded by g133629 and all of exon 19 encoded by g1335631; MHC1 RNA found in pupal-adult and embryo-larval stages
one of a couple of products generated by alternative splicing
At least 480 Mhc isoforms are theoretically encoded by the gene when all the different possible combinations of alternate exons are considered. The alternative exons encode sequences close to or within regions thought to have important structural or enzymatic functions. Putative functional domains and regions of exceptional sequence conservation, however, are most often distributed in both alternative and common exons. Some of the characterized domains map to exons as follows: a conserved hydrophobic pocket sequence in exons 3-4, the highly conserved ATP-binding domain in exon 4, the highly divergent proteolytic cleavage site that defines the 25-50kD junction in exon 4, two highly conserved regions of unidentified function in exons 4-6 and 8-9, the 50-20kD junction in exon 10, the primary actin-binding site in exon 10, a secondary actin-binding site in exon 11, the sites of myosin light chain binding in exon 12, the head-tail junction in exon 12, the hinge region in exons 14-16, and the non-coiled tailpiece in exons 17-19.
Predicted from sequence data (J02788). Encoded by transcript containing exon 3a.
Predicted from sequence data (J02788). Encoded by transcript containing exon 3b.
At least two different Mhc proteins are translated from different classes of RNA that are generated by alternative splicing at the 3'' end. One class of Mhc protein has 27 unique amino acids at the C-terminal end.
At least two different Mhc proteins are translated from different classes of RNA that are generated by alternative splicing at the 3' end. This class of Mhc protein has 27 unique amino acids at the C-terminal end.
At least two different Mhc proteins are translated from different classes of RNA that are generated by alternative splicing at the 3' end. One class of Mhc protein has one unique amino acid at the C-terminal end.
At least two different Mhc proteins are translated from different classes of RNA that are generated by alternative splicing at the 3'' end. This class of Mhc protein has 27 unique amino acids at the C-terminal end.
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Muscle myosin is a hexameric protein that consists of 2 heavy chain subunits (MHC), 2 alkali light chain subunits (MLC) and 2 regulatory light chain subunits (MLC-2).
(UniProt, P05661)
Domain
Alternative splicing exons contribute to the specialized contractile activities of different muscle types. Exon 3 encodes the hydrophobic pocket adjacent to the ATP-binding site, exon 9 is adjacent to the actin-binding domain, exon 11 is involved in actin-binding, exon 15 in the S2 hinge and exons 18 and 19 the non-coiled tail region. Limited proteolysis of myosin heavy chain produces 1 light meromyosin (LMM) and 1 heavy meromyosin (HMM). HMM can be further cleaved into 2 globular subfragments (S1) and 1 rod-shaped subfragment (S2).
(UniProt, P05661)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mhc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (26 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR008989
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001609, InterPro:IPR004009
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR001609, InterPro:IPR002928, InterPro:IPR004009
(assigned by InterPro )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
microinjection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression dependent on Mef2 levels.
The Mhc transcript of this structure is the main form expressed in the indirect flight muscle.
The Mhc transcript of this structure is the main form expressed in the TDT (mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66) and in direct flight muscle 51.
The Mhc transcript of this structure is the main form expressed in direct flight muscle 52 and in esophageal muscle.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: 0-2 hr AEL

organism
nucleus

Comment: nuclear extract

Additional Descriptive Data
Mhc protein is expressed in the mesodermal cells of the developing embryonic foregut.
Mef2 protein is localized to the nuclei of all embryonic somatic and visceral muscle cells and muscle cell precursors.
The 155kD form of Mhc protein is mainly detected in testis.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mhc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 69 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 87 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Mhc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Mhc
Deletions and Duplications ( 18 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dorsal medial muscle & myofibril
indirect flight muscle & myofibril
indirect flight muscle & sarcomere
indirect flight muscle & striated muscle thick filament
indirect flight muscle & Z disc
mitochondrion & mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66
myofibril & indirect flight muscle
myofibril & mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66
myosin filament & embryonic somatic muscle
myosin filament & mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66
sarcomere & indirect flight muscle
striated muscle thick filament & indirect flight muscle
striated muscle thick filament & mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66
striated muscle thin filament & indirect flight muscle
striated muscle thin filament & mesothoracic extracoxal depressor muscle 66
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (31)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
 
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
 
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
 
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
 
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (28)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (28)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
12 of 13
No
Yes
12 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (24)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (47)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (14)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (18)
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
Yes
Yes
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
3 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900AG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150058 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0590 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0557 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07UM )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
7 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 11 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 14 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
 
MhcE701K, the human equivalent of which is associated with inclusion body myopathy 3, is expressed in a Mhc10 background which allows for exclusive expression of MhcE701K in indirect flight muscle and jump muscle.
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Muscle myosin is a hexameric protein that consists of 2 heavy chain subunits (MHC), 2 alkali light chain subunits (MLC) and 2 regulatory light chain subunits (MLC-2).
(UniProt, P05661 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-53
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:16,766,566..16,788,766 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
36A8-36B2
Left limit from inclusion within Df(2L)H20 (FBrf0111447) Right limit from non-inclusion within Df(2L)H68 (FBrf0111447)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
36B1-36B2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Notes
Map position of 26.1, 51.7 and 53.1 based on linkage mapping of Ifm(2)RU12, Ifm(2)RU13 and Ifm(2)RU14, respectively.
Map position of 53.8, 51.6, 52.6, 52.0, 53.5 and 51.5 based on linkage mapping of ifm(2)RU210, ifm(2)RU211, ifm(2)RU212, ifm(2)RU213, ifm(2)RU214, and ifm(2)RU215, respectively.
Maps 2.8 +/- 0.4 units to the left of cn.
Stocks and Reagents