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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rdgC
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
retinal degeneration C
Annotation Symbol
CG44746
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0265959
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Protein-serine/threonine phosphatase (3.1.3.16)
Gene Snapshot
retinal degeneration C (rdgC) encodes a serine/threonine phosphatase that binds Ca2+/calmodulin and contains 2 Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs. It promotes the dephosphorylation of the product of ninaE, which prevents its internalization. It also promotes the dephosphorylation of the product of trp at specific site affecting the frequency response to modulated light. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:20,248,080..20,265,554 [+]
Recombination map
3-47
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the PPP phosphatase family. (P40421)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
-
Predictions / Assertions
[a protein]-serine/threonine phosphate + H(2)O = [a protein]- serine/threonine + phosphate (3.1.3.16)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES -
The Phosphoprotein Phosphatase (PPP) family members are serine/threonine phosphatases. They often function in association with regulatory subunits. (Adapted from PMID:11230548 and PMID:19879837).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Phosphatase required to prevent light-induced retinal degeneration.
(UniProt, P40421)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\rdgC or the JBrowse view of Dmel\rdgC for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
Gene model reviewed during 6.23
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0342946
3879
661
FBtr0342947
4551
746
FBtr0342948
4364
746
FBtr0342949
4189
746
FBtr0473730
3702
677
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0309720
75.5
661
7.20
FBpp0309721
84.9
746
8.56
FBpp0309722
84.9
746
8.56
FBpp0309723
84.9
746
8.56
FBpp0423099
77.2
677
7.69
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

746 aa isoforms: rdgC-PF, rdgC-PG, rdgC-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
661 (aa); 95 (kD observed)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rdgC using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (15 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Cam; FB:FBgn0000253
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002048
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012008
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012008
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003355
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000911710
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012008
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003355
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000911710
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003355
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000911710
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
rdgC protein is observed in extracts from adult heads but not bodies. In sections of adult heads, staining is observed in the retina, occelli, and mushroom bodies.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\rdgC in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 8 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 9 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rdgC
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rdgC
Deletions and Duplications ( 2 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
2 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919035U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502UT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03BI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0397 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02M5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Gene Group - Pathway Membership (FlyBase)
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-47
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:20,248,080..20,265,554 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    77B1-77A4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)L1243L1243&P{lacW}Mi-2j3D4 and P{PZ}eRF100103
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    77B1-77B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (23)
    cDNA Clones (53)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Source for merge of: rdgC CG13814
    Additional comments
    Annotations CG6571 and CG13814 merged as CG44746 in release 5.51 of the genome annotation. Merge supported by second tier modENCODE RNA-seq junction data (FBrf0217580) and RNA-seq expression data.
    Other Comments
    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
    The calmodulin/rdgC interaction is required to potentiate dephosphorylation of rhodopsin in vivo and for rapid termination of the photoresponse.
    rdgC is a calmodulin-dependant protein phosphatase.
    Retinal cell death in mutants occurs by apoptosis and can be blocked by eye-specific expression of BacA\p35. Mutants expressing BacA\p35 show significant retention of visual function.
    In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
    In disrupted photoreceptor cells metarhodopsin is not stabilised until arrestin is present. In intact photoreceptor cels significant metarhodopsin stabilisation occurs even in the absence of bound arrestin.
    Phototransduction, a phospholipase C-mediated, calcium-regulated G protein-coupled pathway, is studied for genetic dissection of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) function and regulation.
    ninaE mutants act as dominant rhodopsin mutants by suppressing the production of the wild type ninaE rhodopsin. As a consequence of the lowered rhodopsin content the mutations suppress the rapid retinal degeneration associated with rdgC and norpA mutations.
    The calcium content of light and dark raised flies demonstrates that calcium accumulation is a secondary effect, rather than primary effect, in the degeneration process.
    Assays of rhodopsin dephosphorylation in rdgC mutants reveals that phosphorylated rhodopsin is a major substrate for the rdgC phosphatase.
    A molecular analysis of rdgC has been carried out. rdgC encodes a protein sharing a significant sequence identity with the catalytic domain of serine/threonine phosphatases.
    Analysis of rdgC mutants reveals that retinal degeneration is a consequence of light stimulation of rhodopsin. rdgC+ function is required in a metabolic process that results from rhodopsin stimulation but is not needed in the phospholipase C activated transduction pathway.
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 46 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (107)