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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kl-3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
male fertility factor kl3
Annotation Symbol
CG45785
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267432
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
male fertility factor kl3 (kl-3) encodes a dynein heavy chain that is a component of a microtubule motor complex. This motor activity is essential only for spermatogenesis. Lack of kl-3 results in loss of the axonemal out dynein arms in the spermatid tail. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

kl3, Lms3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
Y-
RefSeq locus
NC_024512 REGION:336381..563165
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011704
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000743491
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000743491
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:A8JDH8
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000743491
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in cilium movement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q8TE73
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000743491
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002472868
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000743491
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:Q8TE73
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002472868
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
male fertility factor kl3 (kl-3) encodes a dynein heavy chain that is a component of a microtubule motor complex. This motor activity is essential only for spermatogenesis. Lack of kl-3 results in loss of the axonemal out dynein arms in the spermatid tail. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AXONEMAL OUTER ARM DYNEIN HEAVY CHAINS -
Dynein heavy chains are minus end-directed microtubule motor proteins. Axonemal dynein complexes interact with adjacent microtubules in the axoneme. Coordinated binding and release of the axonemal dyneins slide the microtubules relative to each other causing the axoneme to bend driving ciliary and flagellar motion. Axonemal outer arm dynein heavy chains are the microtubule-binding motor protein of the dynein outer arm. (Adapted from FBrf0230280).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kl-3
Males mutant for kl-3 fail to assemble the outer dynein arms associated with the peripheral nine microtubule doublets of the sperm-tail axoneme [Hardy, Tokuyasu, and Lindsley, 1981, Chromosoma 83: 593-617 (fig.)]. Such males also fail to produce a kl-3-specific 300-325 kilodalton sperm polypeptide presumed to be a component of the outer dynein arms (Goldstein, Hardy, and Lindsley, 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 7404-09). Such mutants display an exceedingly low level of fertility at 25 but not at 18 immediately upon eclosion, but not thereafter (Kennison, 1983, Genetics 103: 219-34). Deficiencies for kl-3 are completely sterile, and in addition to the above mutant phenotype, they fail to elaborate the loops (ribbon-like structure) observed in the primary spermatocyte nuclei of normal males by light microscopy and the reticular material ordinarily observed by electron microscopy in spermatocyte nuclei (Hardy et al., 1981). The kl-3 loops are visible in living spermatocytes and in fixed cells stained with the protein-specific dye CBB; these loops are also demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody Sph-155 but do not react with monoclonal antibody S5 (Bonaccorsi et al., 1988).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\kl-3 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.01

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0346771
13882
4593
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kl-3 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
mutational analysis
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

As part of a survey of ciliary motility gene homologs in Drosophila, expression of kl-3 was assayed in motile ciliated cell types. Expression was observed in sperm (testis) but not chordotonal neurons.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kl-3 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 4 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kl-3
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kl-3
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 73 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 73 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    6 of 15
    Yes
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    6 of 15
    Yes
    No
    5 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
    4 of 13
    Yes
    No
    3 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (14)
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
    5 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    4 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915001A )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Aedes aegypti
    Yellow fever mosquito
    Anopheles darlingi
    American malaria mosquito
    Anopheles gambiae
    Malaria mosquito
    Culex quinquefasciatus
    Southern house mosquito
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W000Z )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Danaus plexippus
    Monarch butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Heliconius melpomene
    Postman butterfly
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis florea
    Little honeybee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Apis mellifera
    Western honey bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus impatiens
    Common eastern bumble bee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Bombus terrestris
    Buff-tailed bumblebee
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Linepithema humile
    Argentine ant
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Megachile rotundata
    Alfalfa leafcutting bee
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Nasonia vitripennis
    Parasitic wasp
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Dendroctonus ponderosae
    Mountain pine beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Tribolium castaneum
    Red flour beetle
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Rhodnius prolixus
    Kissing bug
    Cimex lectularius
    Bed bug
    Acyrthosiphon pisum
    Pea aphid
    Zootermopsis nevadensis
    Nevada dampwood termite
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X000Y )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Strigamia maritima
    European centipede
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Stegodyphus mimosarum
    African social velvet spider
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G001E )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Purple sea urchin
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Ciona intestinalis
    Vase tunicate
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Gallus gallus
    Domestic chicken
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (14)
    4 of 10
    4 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    1 of 10
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      Y
      Recombination map
      Y-
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      h8-h8
      Left limit from complementation mapping against T(Y;3)S20 (FBrf0039037) Right limit from complementation mapping against T(Y;3)D107 (FBrf0039037)
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Maps to the region of kl-3.
      h7-h9
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (6)
      Genomic Clones (3)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (17)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

          cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
          BDGP DGC clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
           
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of

          Source for merge of: kl-3 CG17629

          Source for merge of: kl-3 CG40992 CG40936

          Additional comments

          Annotations CG40992, CG40936 and CG17629 merged as CG45785 in release 6.02 of the genome annotation. This gene is no longer fragmented in the release 6 genome assembly.

          Source for merge of kl-3 CG17629 was sequence comparison ( date:001108 ).

          Williamson (1972) reported 23 non-complementing and nine complementing alleles induced by EMS.

          Other Comments

          Sequence of transcript(s) changed in r6 genomic release relative to r5 release.

          New annotation (CG40992) in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.

          New annotation (CG40936) in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.

          Transiently named CG40443 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

          It is not yet known if "ms(Y)104b" is the same as kl-3.

          Primary spermatocyte nuclei exhibit three giant lampbrush-like loops formed by the kl-5, kl-3 and ks-1 Y chromosome fertility factors.

          Males mutant for kl-3 fail to assemble the outer dynein arms associated with the peripheral nine microtubule doublets of the sperm-tail axoneme (Hardy, Tokuyasu, and Lindsley, 1981). Such males also fail to produce a kl-3-specific 300-325 kilodalton sperm polypeptide presumed to be a component of the outer dynein arms (Goldstein, Hardy and Lindsley, 198). Such mutants display an exceedingly low level of fertility at 25oC but not at 18oC immediately upon eclosion, but not thereafter (Kennison, 1983). Deficiencies for kl-3 are completely sterile, and in addition to the above mutant phenotype, they fail to elaborate the loops (ribbon-like structure) observed in the primary spermatocyte nuclei of normal males by light microscopy and the reticular material ordinarily observed by electron microscopy in spermatocyte nuclei (Hardy et al., 1981). The kl-3 loops are visible in living spermatocytes and in fixed cells stained with the protein-specific dye CBB; these loops are also demonstrated by the polyclonal antibody Sph-155 but do not react with monoclonal antibody S5 (Bonaccorsi et al., 1988).

          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
          EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
          Linkouts
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (103)