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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\kl-5
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
male fertility factor kl5
Annotation Symbol
CG45786
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267433
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Dhc-Yh3, kl5, Lms4, DhcYh3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
Y-
RefSeq locus
NC_024512 REGION:22250..137486
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011704
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR026983, InterPro:IPR030443
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR026983, InterPro:IPR030443
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from expression pattern
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
is_active_in sperm flagellum
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AXONEMAL OUTER ARM DYNEIN HEAVY CHAINS -
Dynein heavy chains are minus end-directed microtubule motor proteins. Axonemal dynein complexes interact with adjacent microtubules in the axoneme. Coordinated binding and release of the axonemal dyneins slide the microtubules relative to each other causing the axoneme to bend driving ciliary and flagellar motion. Axonemal outer arm dynein heavy chains are the microtubule-binding motor protein of the dynein outer arm. (Adapted from FBrf0230280).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kl-5
Males mutant for kl-5 fail to assemble the outer dynein arms associated with the A tubules of the peripheral doublets of the sperm tail axoneme [Hardy, Tokuyasu, and Lindsley, 1981, Chromosoma 83: 593-617 (fig.)]. Such males also fail to produce kl-5-specific 300-325 kilodalton sperm polypeptide considered to be a component of the outer arms (Goldstein, Hardy, and Lindsley, 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 7404-09). kl-5 mutants exhibit very low level of fertility at 25 but not at 18 and in young but not older males (Kennison, 1983, Genetics 103: 219-34). Deficiencies for kl-5 completely sterile, and in addition to the mutant phenotype they fail to produce aggregates of tubuli normally seen in thin sections of primary spermatocyte nuclei (Hardy et al.). Within the kl-5 fertility region of the spermatocyte nucleus, a loop-forming site has been demonstrated by its reaction with the monoclonal antibody S5 (Bonaccorsi et al., 1988). These loops are stained with the protein-specific dye CBB, but are not visible in living preparations.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\kl-5 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry Q5LJN5)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.01

Gene model reviewed during 6.02

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0346772
13680
4559
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\kl-5 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: kl-5+ transcripts are detected only in adult males

mutational analysis
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

As part of a survey of ciliary motility gene homologs in Drosophila, expression of kl-5 was assayed in motile ciliated cell types. Expression was observed in sperm (testis) but not chordotonal neurons.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
is_active_in sperm flagellum
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\kl-5 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 3 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of kl-5
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of kl-5
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 93 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 93 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    3 of 15
    Yes
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1  
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    4 of 15
    Yes
    No
    3 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (13)
    4 of 13
    Yes
    No
    3 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    No
    2 of 13
    No
    Yes
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    1 of 13
    No
    No
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (15)
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    2 of 12
    Yes
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    1 of 12
    No
    Yes
    1 of 12
    No
    No
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
    3 of 15
    Yes
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    2 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    No
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    1 of 15
    No
    Yes
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
    1 of 12
    Yes
    No
    Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (14)
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    3 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    2 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    1 of 10
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      Y
      Recombination map
      Y-
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      h2-h3
      Left limit from complementation mapping against T(Y;3)G42 (FBrf0039037) Right limit from complementation mapping against T(Y;3)J94 (FBrf0039037)
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      h3-h3
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (4)
      Genomic Clones (4)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (11)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

          For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

            cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
            BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
                RNAi and Array Information
                Linkouts
                GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                Antibody Information
                Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                 
                Commercially Available Antibodies
                 
                Other Information
                Relationship to Other Genes
                Source for database identify of
                Source for database merge of

                Source for merge of: kl-5 Dhc-Yh3

                Source for merge of: CG12573 CG17616

                Source for merge of: kl-5 CG41497

                Additional comments

                Annotations CG40444 and CG41497 merged as CG45786 in release 6.02 of the genome annotation. This gene is no longer fragmented in the release 6 genome assembly.

                Annotations CG12573 and CG17616 merged as CG40444 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

                Williamson (1972) reported 26 non-complementing and nine complementing alleles induced by EMS.

                Other Comments

                Sequence of transcript(s) changed in r6 genomic release relative to r5 release.

                New annotation (CG41497) in release 5.2 of the genome annotation.

                dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

                Identification: PCR screen for Dynein heavy chain genes.

                kl-5 has been cloned and characterised.

                kl-5 gene locus encodes a dynein heavy chain, the dynein heavy chain sequences are localised to the kl-5 region of the Y chromosome. These results provide evidence that at least one of the Y chromosome fertility regions encodes a polypeptide required for spermatogenesis.

                Primary spermatocyte nuclei exhibit three giant lampbrush-like loops formed by the kl-5, kl-3 and ks-1 Y chromosome fertility factors.

                AAGAC satellite DNA repeats which map to the kl-5 and ks-1 loop forming regions are abundantly transcribed in primary spermatocytes. These transcripts are detected at all stages of development of these two loops, do not appear to migrate to the cytoplasm and are degraded when the loops disintegrate during the first meiotic prophase.

                Males mutant for kl-5 fail to assemble the outer dynein arms associated with the A tubules of the peripheral doublets of the sperm tail axoneme (Hardy, Tokuyasu, and Lindsley, 1981). Such males also fail to produce kl-5-specific 300-325 kilodalton sperm polypeptide considered to be a component of the outer arms (Goldstein, Hardy and Lindsley, 1982). kl-5 mutants exhibit very low level of fertility at 25oC but not at 18oC and in young but not older males (Kennison, 1983). Deficiencies for kl-5 completely sterile and in addition to the mutant phenotype they fail to produce aggregates of tubuli normally seen in thin sections of primary spermatocyte nuclei (Hardy et al., 1981). Within the kl-5 fertility region of the spermatocyte nucleus, a loop-forming site has been demonstrated by its reaction with the monoclonal antibody S5 (Bonaccorsi et al., 1988). These loops are stained with the protein-specific dye CBB, but are not visible in living preparations.

                Origin and Etymology
                Discoverer
                Etymology
                Identification
                External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 67 )
                Sequence Crossreferences
                NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
                UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
                UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                Other crossreferences
                AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
                DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
                EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
                FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
                FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
                GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
                iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
                KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
                Linkouts
                DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
                MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
                Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
                Reported As
                Name Synonyms
                Dynein heavy chain in Yh3
                Y-linked flagellar dynein
                dynein-related heavy chain
                male fertility factor kl-5
                male fertility factor kl5
                Secondary FlyBase IDs
                • FBgn0010386
                • FBgn0040029
                • FBgn0058444
                • FBan0040444
                • FBgn0001315
                • FBan0041497
                • FBgn0085658
                Datasets (2)
                Study focus (0)
                Experimental Role
                Project
                Project Type
                Title
                Study result (2)
                Result
                Result Type
                Title
                Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
                Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
                References (113)