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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Pak
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
p21-activated kinase
Annotation Symbol
CG10295
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267698
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
p21-activated kinase (Pak) encodes a serine/threonine effector kinase for the small GTPases Rac and the product of Cdc42 involved in cytoskeletal regulation. The product of Pak contributes to growth cone guidance, synaptic development, and epithelial morphogenesis in both the ovary and embryo. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As
DPAK, Pak1, PAK-kinase, p65PAK, psg4
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:6,350,896..6,361,614 [+]
Recombination map
3-47.5
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
P21-ACTIVATED KINASES -
PAK proteins are serine/threonine kinases characterised by an C-terminal STE20 kinase domain and an N-terminal p21-binding domain which binds RhoGTPases. PAKs are autoinhibited by homodimerization. PAKs are involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton organisation and other signaling cascades. (Adapted from FBrf0187582).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
p21-activated kinase - signal transduction protein functioning downstream of rac - required for growth cone guidance - BTB-kelch protein Diablo modulates synaptic dPAK to gate glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic response
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
9
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the GBrowse view of Dmel\Pak or the JBrowse view of Dmel\Pak for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model
Gene model reviewed during 5.55
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.47
Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081715
3461
704
FBtr0081716
3168
704
FBtr0081714
3064
704
FBtr0334539
3163
704
FBtr0334540
3576
840
FBtr0334541
3671
840
FBtr0334542
5196
840
FBtr0334543
4937
840
FBtr0334544
4827
704
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
4.3 (northern blot)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081212
76.2
704
7.40
FBpp0081213
76.2
704
7.40
FBpp0081211
76.2
704
7.40
FBpp0306606
76.2
704
7.40
FBpp0306607
89.8
840
6.82
FBpp0306608
89.8
840
6.82
FBpp0306609
89.8
840
6.82
FBpp0306610
89.8
840
6.82
FBpp0306611
76.2
704
7.40
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

704 aa isoforms: Pak-PA, Pak-PB, Pak-PC, Pak-PE, Pak-PJ
840 aa isoforms: Pak-PF, Pak-PG, Pak-PH, Pak-PI
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
704 (aa); 75 (kD observed); 76 (kD predicted)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Pak using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Gene Ontology (27 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rac1; FB:FBgn0010333
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Cdc42; FB:FBgn0010341
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dock; FB:FBgn0010583
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (15 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000685295
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
colocalizes_with focal adhesion
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000684825
(assigned by GO_Central )
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
dissected tissue
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalon primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Expression increases after the prepupal (+10 hr APF) ecdysone pulse.
Pak transcripts are detected throughout development on northern blots. Transcripts are detected ubiquitously throughout embryogenesis by in situ hybridization. Elevated transcript levels are observed in particular cells. From stage 11 until dorsal closure, elevated levels are seen in epidermal cells flanking the amnioserosa, particularly in two cells flanking each segment border. After dorsal closure, elevated transcript levels are observed in the dorsal vessel, in the CNS, and at muscle attachment sites.
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
follicle cell

Comment: limited to basal end by stage S9

Additional Descriptive Data
Pak is expressed weakly in central brain neuropils, and shows a punctate distribution where it is expressed.
Pak staining is seen at follicle cell membranes and in germline cells in early egg chambers. Staining gets more restricted with time and is limited to the basal end of follicle cells by stage S9. Strong cortical localization is observed
in the columnar epithelium over the oocyte.
In the adult prothorax and neck, Pak immunoreactivity is observed at the active zone of type I boutons of motor neurons innervating ventral cervical muscles, prothoracic sternal anterior rotator muscle 31, and prothoracic sternal adductor muscle 33. Patches of Pak immunoreactivity are distributed over the surface of Type I boutons, and also along the the innervating axon. Pak immunoreactivity is distributed evenly along the length of Type I terminals at muscle 27, suggesting an unusually large synaptic contact.
Pak protein is detected ubiquitously during embryogenesis. Elevated protein levels are observed in particular cells in late embryonic stages. Heavy staining is observed in the dorsal vessel and at muscle attachment sites. Beginning at stage 12, staining is observed in the longitudinal connectives and commissures of the CNS. Pak protein levels are also elevated in the first row of epidermal cells surrounding the amnioserosa and more particularly at the leading edge of these cells. Levels are elevated in one to six cells flanking each segment border.
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with actin filament
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
colocalizes_with focal adhesion
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Pak in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 33 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Pak
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Pak
Deletions and Duplications ( 5 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal posterior fascicle neuron & growth cone & filopodium, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
antennal lobe & neuropil (with Pak6)
antennal lobe & neuropil (with Pak11)
glial cell & antennal lobe (with Pak6)
glial cell & antennal lobe (with Pak11)
mesothoracic les3 neuron & growth cone & filopodium, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
metathoracic les3 neuron & growth cone & filopodium, with Scer\GAL4elav.PLu
neuron & antennal lobe (with Pak6)
neuron & antennal lobe (with Pak11)
photoreceptor cell & axon
photoreceptor cell & axon | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Homo sapiens (Human) (23)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
 
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (22)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (20)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (9)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (28)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (14)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (26)
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (11)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (11)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Orthologs in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190690 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503FX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0548 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0674 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G04H8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v7.1)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
6 of 10
5 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Comments on Models/Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
     
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v7.1 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-47.5
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:6,350,896..6,361,614 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    83E4-83E4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}casj1C2 and P{PZ}lab01241
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    83E4-83E6
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    83E-83E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (22)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (62)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequences
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Source for merge of: Pak CG10295
      Source for merge of: Pak l(3)psg4
      Additional comments
      Other Comments
      Pak is required for integrity of the leading edge cytoskeleton during dorsal closure.
      One of 42 Drosophila genes identified as being most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to human Mental Retardation disorders.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in S2R+ cells: cells become retracted (unspread but flat). Kc167 cells are unaffected.
      dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.
      Pak is a critical regulator of R cell axon guidance and a downstream effector of dock in vivo.
      The Pak mutant phenotypes are remarkably similar to dock.
      Distribution of Pak during embryonic development suggests that Pak protein may regulate the organisation of focal adhesions and focal complexes, and consequently the organisation of the actin cytoskeleton and may be participating in a bsk cascade required for dorsal closure.
      Pak interacts with Cdc42 and Rac1 and is a potential downstream signalling molecule. Antibody staining suggest Pak gene product is associated with the cytoskeleton.
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 98 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (38)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Name Synonyms
      P21-activated kinase
      P21-activating kinase
      PAK kinase
      lethal (3) persistent salivary gland 4
      p21- activated kinase
      p21-activated serine/threonine kinase
      p21-associated kinase
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0014001
      • FBgn0037437
      • FBgn0262522
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (250)