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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PRAS40
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa
Annotation Symbol
CG46146
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267824
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40) encodes a protein that functions to link Insulin/IGF signaling and the activation of the product of Tor in a tissue-specific manner, affecting the activity of the product of Tor in the ovary but not in other fly tissues. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:14,481,187..14,497,312 [+]
Recombination map

2-71

RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:14481187..14497312
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001094901
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001094901
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR026682
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001094901
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Negative Regulators of Pvr Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Platelet-derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-related (Pvr) signaling down-regulate the pathway.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
L: Lobe
Variable reduction in eye size of heterozygotes and homozygotes as well as in homozygous viability, depending on allele. Most extreme allele, L2, exhibits reduced eyes in heterozygote and tiny eyes and poor viability in homozygote; classifiable in single dose in triploids (Schultz, 1934, DIS 1: 55). L1/+ have slightly reduced eyes with nick in anterior edge and the lower half of eye reduced more than upper; overlaps wild type; eyes of homozygote much smaller and less variable; bipartite eyes occasionally formed. Lr shows weakest expression, with the heterozygote indistinguishable from wild type and the homozygote with small kidney-shaped eyes at 25, but overlapping wild type at 19. Tested alleles (L4, LB, Ld, Lr) exhibit reduced expression at 19 compared to 25. Expression enhanced (L1, L2, L4) in combination with Minutes [M(2)58F, M(3)69E, M(3)95A] (Dunn and Coyne, 1935, Biol. Zentr. 55: 385-89). Reduced numbers of cells enter into formation of eye disks (L2, L4, L5, Steinberg, 1944, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 30: 5-13); reduced size of cephalic complex detectable in 24-hr larva, but subsequent growth rate is similar to wild type (L4, Medvedev, 1935, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 70: 55-72; Tr. Inst. Genet. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 10: 119-51).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\PRAS40 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 6.03

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0347396
2632
562
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0312548
61.0
562
5.21
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PRAS40 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data

PRAS40 protein is detected in all developmental stages and tissues tested.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PRAS40 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 25 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 5 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PRAS40
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PRAS40
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation
Inferred from location
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
3 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
    Negative Regulators of Pvr Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of Platelet-derived Growth Factor-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-related (Pvr) signaling down-regulate the pathway.
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map

    2-71

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:14,481,187..14,497,312 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    51A4-51A4
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (11)
    Genomic Clones (28)
    cDNA Clones (61)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: PRAS40 CG46146

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      FBrf0151277 reports that the L (Lobe) mutant complementation group corresponds to the CG10109 annotation (based on the ability of a CG10109 construct to rescue L mutant phenotypes and mapping of the lesion in a L mutant). However, FBrf0217295 reports that L does not correspond to the CG10109 annotation (based on the failure to of a CG10109 construct to rescue L mutant phenotypes and the viability of a L mutant allele over a deficiency that removes CG10109). The L (Lobe) mutant complementation group has been split out from the CG10109 annotation in FlyBase until this is resolved. Thus, in release 6.03 of the genome annotation, annotation CG46146 replaces CG10109 and is split from the Lobe (L) gene.

      The L[rev6-3] lethal allele is viable over a deficiency (Df(2R)ED2354) that removes the CG10109 gene and the lethality is not rescued by expression of a UAS-CG10109 line (P{UAS-PRAS40.C}), suggesting that the L complementation group does not correspond to CG10109.

      Other Comments

      PRAS40 couples insulin/IG signaling (IIS) to TOR complex 1 (TORC1) activation in a tissue specific manner, regulating TORC1 activity in the ovary but not in other tissues. It thus regulates fertility but not growth.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      Linkouts
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (37)