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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\L
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Lobe
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0267825
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
PRAS40 ortholog required for eye cell survival - regulates eye development through the TOR pathway (Interactive Fly, L )
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (0 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    L: Lobe
    Variable reduction in eye size of heterozygotes and homozygotes as well as in homozygous viability, depending on allele. Most extreme allele, L2, exhibits reduced eyes in heterozygote and tiny eyes and poor viability in homozygote; classifiable in single dose in triploids (Schultz, 1934, DIS 1: 55). L1/+ have slightly reduced eyes with nick in anterior edge and the lower half of eye reduced more than upper; overlaps wild type; eyes of homozygote much smaller and less variable; bipartite eyes occasionally formed. Lr shows weakest expression, with the heterozygote indistinguishable from wild type and the homozygote with small kidney-shaped eyes at 25, but overlapping wild type at 19. Tested alleles (L4, LB, Ld, Lr) exhibit reduced expression at 19 compared to 25. Expression enhanced (L1, L2, L4) in combination with Minutes [M(2)58F, M(3)69E, M(3)95A] (Dunn and Coyne, 1935, Biol. Zentr. 55: 385-89). Reduced numbers of cells enter into formation of eye disks (L2, L4, L5, Steinberg, 1944, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 30: 5-13); reduced size of cephalic complex detectable in 24-hr larva, but subsequent growth rate is similar to wild type (L4, Medvedev, 1935, Z. Indukt. Abstamm. Vererbungsl. 70: 55-72; Tr. Inst. Genet. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 10: 119-51).
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    PRAS40 ortholog required for eye cell survival - regulates eye development through the TOR pathway

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    0
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    0
    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
      Mapped Features

      Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\L using the Feature Mapper tool.

      External Data
      Crossreferences
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Linkouts
      Expression Data
      Expression Summary Ribbons
      Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
      For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
      Transcript Expression
      Additional Descriptive Data
      Marker for
       
      Subcellular Localization
      CV Term
      Polypeptide Expression
      Additional Descriptive Data
      Marker for
       
      Subcellular Localization
      CV Term
      Evidence
      References
      Expression Deduced from Reporters
      High-Throughput Expression Data
      Associated Tools

      GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

      View Dmel\L in GBrowse 2
      RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
      Reference
      See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
      Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
      Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
      External Data and Images
      Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
      Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 27 )
      For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
       
      Other relevant insertions
      Transgenic Constructs ( 0 )
      For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
      Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of L
      Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of L
      Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
      Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
      Inferred from location ( 0 )
        Phenotypes
        Orthologs
        Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
        No records found.
        Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
        No records found.
        Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
        No records found.
        Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
        No records found.
        Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
        No records found.
        Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
        No records found.
        Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
        No records found.
        Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
        No records found.
        Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
        No records found.
        Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
        Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
        No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
        Paralogs
        Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
        Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
        No records found.
        Human Disease Associations
        FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
          Disease Model Summary Ribbon
          Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
          Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
          Human Ortholog
          Disease
          Evidence
          References
          Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
          Allele
          Disease
          Interaction
          References
          Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
          Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
          Homo sapiens (Human)
          Gene name
          Score
          OMIM
          OMIM Phenotype
          DO term
          Complementation?
          Transgene?
          Functional Complementation Data
          Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
          Interactions
          Summary of Physical Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          Interactions Browser
          Summary of Genetic Interactions
          esyN Network Diagram
          esyN Network Key:
          Suppression
          Enhancement

          Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          suppressible
          suppressible
          Starting gene(s)
          Interaction type
          Interacting gene(s)
          Reference
          External Data
          Linkouts
          Pathways
          Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
          Metabolic Pathways
          External Data
          Linkouts
          Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
          Chromosome (arm)
          Recombination map
          2-72.0
          Cytogenetic map
          Sequence location
          FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Evidence for location
          Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
          Cytogenetic map
          Notes
          References
          Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
          Left of (cM)
          Right of (cM)
          Notes
          Stocks and Reagents
          Stocks (97)
          Genomic Clones (0)
           
            cDNA Clones (0)
             

            Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

            cDNA clones, fully sequenced
            BDGP DGC clones
              Other clones
                Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

                For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                  cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                  BDGP DGC clones
                    Other clones
                      RNAi and Array Information
                      Linkouts
                      Antibody Information
                      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                       

                      polyclonal

                      Commercially Available Antibodies
                       
                      Other Information
                      Relationship to Other Genes
                      Source for database identify of
                      Source for database merge of
                      Additional comments

                      FBrf0151277 reports that the L (Lobe) mutant complementation group corresponds to the CG10109 annotation (based on the ability of a CG10109 construct to rescue L mutant phenotypes and mapping of the lesion in a L mutant). However, FBrf0217295 reports that L does not correspond to the CG10109 annotation (based on the failure to of a CG10109 construct to rescue L mutant phenotypes and the viability of a L mutant allele over a deficiency that removes CG10109). The L (Lobe) mutant complementation group has been split out from the CG10109 annotation in FlyBase until this is resolved. Thus, in release 6.03 of the genome annotation, annotation CG46146 replaces CG10109 and is split from the Lobe (L) gene.

                      The L[rev6-3] lethal allele is viable over a deficiency (Df(2R)ED2354) that removes the CG10109 gene and the lethality is not rescued by expression of a UAS-CG10109 line (P{UAS-PRAS40.C}), suggesting that the L complementation group does not correspond to CG10109.

                      "ne1" is probably an allele of "L".

                      Other Comments

                      L is required non-autonomously for ventral growth but not dorsal growth in the eye disc.

                      A number of unstable mutations in the L locus have been induced by microinjection of Rous sarcoma virus cDNA.

                      Variable reduction in eye size of heterozygotes and homozygotes as well as in homozygous viability, depending on allele. Most extreme allele, L2, exhibits reduced eyes in heterozygote and tiny eyes and poor viability in homozygote; classifiable in single dose in triploids (Schultz, 1934). L1/+ have slightly reduced eyes with nick in anterior edge and the lower half of eye reduced more than upper; overlaps wild type; eyes of homozygote much smaller and less variable; bipartite eyes occasionally formed. Lr shows weakest expression, with the heterozygote indistinguishable from wild type and the homozygote with small kidney-shaped eyes at 25oC, but overlapping wild type at 19oC. Tested alleles (L4, LB, Ld, Lr) exhibit reduced expression at 19oC compared to 25oC. Expression enhanced (L1, L2, L4) in combination with Minutes <up>M(2)58F, M(3)69E, RpS3</up> (Dunn and Coyne, 1935). Reduced numbers of cells enter into formation of eye discs (L2, L4, L5, Steinberg, 1944); reduced size of cephalic complex detectable in 24-hr larva, but subsequent growth rate is similar to wild type (L4, Medvedev, 1935; Medvedev, 1935).

                      Origin and Etymology
                      Discoverer
                      Etymology
                      Identification
                      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 3 )
                      Sequence Crossreferences
                      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                      Other crossreferences
                      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
                      Linkouts
                      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
                      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
                      Datasets (0)
                      Study focus (0)
                      Experimental Role
                      Project
                      Project Type
                      Title
                      References (90)